WV Coal Member Meeting 2024 1240x200 1 1

Coal: Energy for the Future

This complete book is accessible online. We strongly suggest, if you do have genuine interest in CoalTG and CoalTL technologies, that you spend some time exploring it - at least a little.
You could contact one of the authors, another expert resident in regional academe:

HAROLD H. SCHOBERT, Chairman, Fuel Sciences Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park,

if you haven't already contacted our home-state experts at WVU.

We refer you especially to Chapter 6:

"Clean Fuels and Specialty Products from Coal"

An excerpt:

"This chapter discusses the status of technologies for coal conversion to clean fuels and the role of the DOE in developing and promoting lower-cost, higher-efficiency processes to meet future needs. This discussion is divided into three major sections: gasification of coal, products from the gas obtained from coal gasification, and products from direct liquefaction and pyrolysis of coal.1 Opportunities for economic production of a range of coal-based products using coproduct systems, also known as coal refineries, is then addressed. The chapter concludes with the committee's major findings relating to clean fuels and specialty products from coal."

This looks like a valuable study and report, Mike - if we're all really interested in coal, and how to use it to make our liquid fuels and some of our chemicals and plastics. It contains many references for follow-up and fact-checking. We'll probably be sending you many burdensome emails based on our own findings within it. You should publish the web address so that every one of your readers with a computer could check it out.


More CO2 Issues

From researchers at the University of Padova, Italy, regarding CTL processes:
"As a second possibility, the same gasifier−combustor scheme is coupled with a coal-to-liquid (CTL) process to convert the syngas into synthetic fuels by a FT reactor. It is shown that, if compared with a conventional CTL plant, the mass yield of liquid synthetic fuel is increased by 39.4%, the CO2 emissions per unit of liquid fuel are decreased by 31.9% and energy efficiency increases by 71.1%."
Point is: CTL can help us reduce CO2 emissions to begin with. And, as earlier noted, once the CO2 is generated, there are ways we can not just capture the gas, but use it constructively. We  should try to view it as a useful by-product.

CO2 Capture from the Air for Fuel or Storage

We had earlier done some research which seemed to clearly indicate that geologic processes generate far more atmospheric pollutants than human activity ever could. Moreover, we suggested that it didn't matter - that we should view coal emissions as another resource we should figure out how to capture and, not just dispose of, but profitably use. And, we submitted some documentation as to the feasibility of such a concept, which suggested several ways to go about it.
An excerpt from the attached file:
"CO2 from Air for Fuel
There are several other CO2 from air research and commercial projects, some with direct conversion to fuel. There is overlap with the Lackner and European project described above.

1. Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories uses concentrated solar energy to chemically 'reenergize' CO2 into carbon monoxide in its 'Sunshine to Petrol' project. The CO is then used to synthesize a liquid combustible fuel like gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. Researchers have already shown proof of concept for their technique. They are now completing a prototype device, called the Counter Rotating Ring Receiver Reactor Recuperator, which uses solar energy to break down CO2. While this isn't going to produce fuel commercially tomorrow – Sandia researchers say it could be 15 or 20 years before that happens – it is an exciting and important move forward.

2. Los Alamos National Laboratory's 'Green Freedom' technology would extract carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and turn it into fuels. Air would be blown over a liquid potassium carbonate liquid to absorb the CO2, and then the CO2 would be extracted from the liquid and electrochemically separated to turn it into fuel. The Green Freedom system could use existing cooling towers, like those at nuclear power plants, which would eliminate the need to build additional structures for processing large volumes of air.

3. CO2-to-fuel technology at Carbon Sciences technology is based on natural organic chemistry processes that occur in all living organisms. Here, carbon atoms extracted from CO2 and hydrogen atoms extracted from H2O are combined, creating hydrocarbon molecules using biocatalysts and small amounts of energy. Using advanced nano-engineered biocatalysts, the technology lends itself to very large industrial scale production. The company plans to demonstrate the technology within the next several months with a prototype that can convert a stream of CO2 into an immediately flammable liquid fuel.

4. In the ELCAT (Electrocatalytic gas-phase conversion of CO2 in confined Catalysts) project, researchers at several European universities have shown the feasibility of gas-phase CO2 conversion in a catalytic process that recycles carbon dioxide into liquid hydrocarbons and alcohols. The technology, which has the potential to cut global CO2 emissions by 5 percent, could be ready for application in a decade.

5. The University of Nottingham's Centre for Innovation in Carbon Capture and Storage in the UK has successfully completed transforming CO2 into natural gas. The CICCS group has replicated the process in plants, capturing CO2, water, and solar light and transforming it into carbohydrates to create methane."
CO2 from coal-fired power plants and coal-to-liquid factories isn't a problem, it's an opportunity.

Method for Producting Pulp from Green Algae

Once you get the cellulose pulp from the algae, you can dump it right back into the power plant furnace or the in-box of the coal-to-liquids conversion factory that produced the CO2 that grew the algae in the first place.
Or, you can press it into flat sheets and print your Intel's on it - then collect the papers and dump them back in with the coal.
Coal power and liquid fuel plant emissions could - and should - be seen as a resource rather than a pollutant.

Algae Bioreactor System to Recycle Carbon Dioxide Emissions into Renewable Biofuels (Louisiana)


The self-explanatory excerpt: 

"PRINCETON, N.J. & CAMBRIDGE, Mass--(BUSINESS WIRE)--NRG Energy, Inc. (NYSE:NRG) and GreenFuel Technologies Corporation (GreenFuel) announced today the commencement of field testing GreenFuel’s proprietary Emissions-to-Biofuels™ technology at NRG’s Big Cajun II – a 1,489 net megawatt coal-fueled power plant in New Roads, Louisiana.

GreenFuel’s Emissions-to-Biofuels™ process uses naturally occurring algae to capture and reduce flue gas carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere. The energy-rich algae are harvested daily and can be converted into a broad range of biofuels or high-value animal feed supplements. Power generators can choose to dry and store the carbon-rich algae biomass for use as renewable fuel for the power plant or convert it to valuable transportation fuels such as biodiesel or ethanol. The process requires no re-engineering of the power plant. "

Now, it's nice that no re-engineering is required. And, we did previously inform you of the Big Cajun project. But, consider the source cities of this news release. Though they're not mentioned by name, we did previously refer you to the work underway at Rutgers and Harvard, did we not? Need - or want - some appropriate contact info at those institutions?