United States Patent: 8226909

The current flurry of global warming/Carbon Dioxide emission hair-on-fire public histrionics is setting a magnificent opportunity smack dab in the middle of Coal Country's dinner table.

It is bringing to center stage the subject of Carbon Dioxide, and, what to do about it - - since we are, whether something actually needs done or not, apparently going to be forced to do something.

Why not start capturing it at our Coal-fired power plants, or even from the atmosphere itself, perhaps using a technology like that developed by West Virginia University, as seen in our report of:

 

USDOE Hires WVU to Capture CO2 for Hydrocarbon Synthesis | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 8,658,561 - Layered Solid Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture; 2014; Inventors: Bingyun Li, et. al., West Virginia and Pennsylvania; Assignee: West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV; Abstract: A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided ... . Government Interests: Certain embodiments of this invention were made with Government support in conjunction with the National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, Pa., under RES contract number DE-FE0004000 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government may have certain rights in the invention. Background and Field: Current post-combustion CO2 capture and sequestration technologies require three main steps: (i) capture CO2 from the stack gas, (ii) compress the nearly pure CO2 to about 2,000 psi, and (iii) permanently "bury" or store the CO2 in certain geological structures deep in the earth. These processes can require up to one-third of the produced power-plant energy, which would otherwise be used as electrical energy for customers. ... Studies have indicated that solid sorbents may have the potential to require substantially less energy (e.g. a reduction of 30-50%) for regeneration than the current MEA-based CO2 scrubbing processes. (The) fast CO2 desorption (exhibited by the materials and process of this invention) could make (these) sorbents a good option for CO2 removal from power plants and even the atmosphere";

and, then using that captured CO2 as a raw material from which we can synthesize Gasoline?

That way, we could tell OPEC to take a hike, put a lot more Coal Country people to work, and, shift the concerns about CO2 emissions to the "transportation sector" - who are, apparently, going to have to address the issue of CO2, as well.

We remind you that, as seen recently in our report of:

USDOE 2011 CO2 to Gasoline | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 7,879,749 - Methods of Using Structures Including Catalytic Materials Disposed Within Porous Zeolite Materials to Synthesize Hydrocarbons; 2011; Inventors: Harry Rollins, et. al., Idaho; Assignee: Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Twin Falls, Idaho (USDOE Idaho National Laboratory); Abstract: Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material. Government Interests: This invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC07-05ID14517 awarded by the United States Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention. Claims: A method of synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules having two or more carbon atoms, the method comprising: contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with a catalytic structure ... . Background and Field: The present invention relates to catalytic materials, structures, systems, and methods. More particularly, the present invention relates to catalytic structures including zeolite materials, and to systems and methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules from hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using such catalytic structures. The present invention also relates to methods of fabricating catalytic structures that include zeolite materials. Carbon dioxide gas (CO2) may be converted into liquid fuels such as, for example, hydrocarbon molecules of between about 5 and about 12 carbon atoms per molecule (e.g., gasoline) through multi-step reactions",

We the People, through our United States Government's Department of Energy, paid with our tax money to have developed a technology, which We the People, although no one has seen fit to tell us about it, now own, whereby Carbon Dioxide, perhaps as recovered from a Coal-fired power plant, or even from the atmosphere itself, using WVU's above-cited process of "United States Patent 8,658,561 - Layered Solid Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture", can be efficiently converted into, especially, "gasoline".

If that sounds far-fetched to you, that our US Government is hitting the panic button publicly about Carbon Dioxide emissions - - and thereby causing an immense amount of public hand-wringing and loudly-voiced recriminations and political posturing in US Coal Country - - while holding a card that would trump OPEC and put an end to the global warming racket, consider, that, shortly after issuance of our USDOE's above patent on Carbon Dioxide-to-Gasoline technology, our USDOE scientists at the Idaho National Laboratory went on to develop even more, related Carbon Dioxide-to-Gasoline technology - - (that phrase has a nice ring to it, don't you think?) - - as seen in excerpts from the initial link in this dispatch to:

"United States Patent 8,226,909 - Systems Including Catalysts in Porous Zeolite Materials Within a Reactor for Use In Synthesizing Hydrocarbons

Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons - Battelle Energ

Patent US8226909 - Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for ... - Google Patents

Date: July 24, 2012

Inventors: Harry Rollins, et. al., Idaho

Assignee: Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls

(The USDOE's Idaho National Laboratory is operated for the USDOE by their contractor, the above Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. Please refer to our above-cited report concerning "United States Patent 7,879,749 - Methods of Using Structures Including Catalytic Materials Disposed Within Porous Zeolite Materials to Synthesize Hydrocarbons" for more details and informational links.)

Abstract: Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

Government Interests: This invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC07-05ID14517 awarded by the United States Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.

Claims: A system for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules having two or more carbon atoms from hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, the system comprising: a reactor configured to receive a reactant mixture comprising hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide; and a catalytic structure disposed within the reactor, the catalytic structure comprising: a zeolite material capable of catalyzing the formation of hydrocarbon molecules having two or more carbon atoms from methanol, the zeolite material comprising: a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material; and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material; and at least one catalytic material disposed within at least one pore of at least one of the first plurality of pores and the second plurality of pores, the at least one catalytic material capable of catalyzing the formation of methanol from at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the presence of hydrogen.

(First, elemental, molecular Hydrogen is required by this process for converting Carbon Dioxide, through an initial synthesis of Methanol, into "hydrocarbon molecules". And, we remind you, that, as seen most recently in our report of:

USDOE 2014 Sunshine Extracts Hydrogen from Water | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 8,729,798 - Anti-reflective Nanoporous Silicon for Efficient Hydrogen Production; 2014; Assignee: Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, Golden, CO (USDOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Abstract: Exemplary embodiments are disclosed of anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production by photoelectrolysis of water. A nanoporous black Si is disclosed as an efficient photocathode for H2 production from water splitting half-reaction. Government Interests: The United States Government has rights in this invention under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 between the United States Department of Energy and the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, the manager and operator of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory";

We the People also own technology for extracting Hydrogen from the Water molecule, H2O, in processes which can be driven by solar radiation, that is, simple and freely-available sunlight.

Second, if you scrutinize the description of the process, you'll realize, that, where "carbon monoxide" is mentioned, along with "carbon dioxide", as a starting material, that "carbon monoxide" is actually being, or can be, formed from the Carbon Dioxide via initial reaction with Hydrogen in the intermediate Reverse Water Gas Shift Reaction, or, more simply, Reverse Conversion; as discussed for one example in our report of:

France Efficient CO2 to Carbon Monoxide Conversion | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent Application 20030113244 - Method for Producing Carbon Monoxide by Reverse Conversion with an Adapted Catalyst; 2003; Assignee: Air Liquide (France); Abstract: The invention concerns a method for producing carbon monoxide by reverse conversion, in gas phase, of carbonic acid gas and gaseous hydrogen while minimising the production of methane. The invention is characterised in that the reaction is carried out at a temperature between 300 and 520 C and under pressure between 10 to 40 bars in the presence of an iron-free catalyst based on zinc oxide and chromium oxide. Said method is preferably carried out continuously and comprises preferably the following steps which consist in: a) preparing a gas mixture rich in carbon dioxide and in hydrogen ... between 300 and 520 C; b) reacting said gas mixture, forming carbon monoxide and water vapour, by passing said mixture through a catalytic bed based on zinc oxide and chromium oxide maintained under pressure between 10 and 40 bars".)

The system ... further comprising a device configured to heat the catalytic structure to a temperature of greater than about 200 C (and) wherein the at least one catalytic material comprises a plurality of metallic particles (and) wherein each metallic particle of the plurality of metallic particles comprises at least one of copper, magnesium, zinc, cobalt, iron, nickel, ruthenium, platinum, palladium, or cesium. 

The system ... wherein the at least one catalytic material further comprises a plurality of metal oxide particles (and) wherein each metal oxide particle of the plurality of metal oxide particles comprises at least one of zinc oxide, magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide, iron oxide, and tungsten oxide. 

The system ... wherein the second plurality of pores comprises a plurality of elongated channels (of a size specified) and  wherein the second plurality of pores further comprises a plurality of generally spherical pores. 

The system ... wherein the zeolite material comprises an aluminosilicate-based material (or others, as specified, and) wherein the zeolite material comprises ZSM-5. 

(The full Claims section goes into specification of the zeolite mineral "frameworks" and other characteristics. Don't be discouraged by the jargon. It is well-known and understood by mineralogists, and, we included some reference links and explanations about it all in our earlier report concerning "United States Patent 7,879,749 - Methods of Using Structures Including Catalytic Materials Disposed Within Porous Zeolite Materials to Synthesize Hydrocarbons; 2011". The zeolites being described and specified are available, and can even be synthesized. They are commonly employed in various chemical manufacturing industries; and, the "ZSM-5" zeolite specified herein is, we must remind you, as seen for one example in our report of:

Mobil Oil 1978 Coal Conversion with Zeolite Catalyst | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 4,086,262 - Conversion of Synthesis Gas to Hydrocarbon Mixtures; 1978; Assignee: Mobil Oil Corporation, NY; Abstract: Contacting a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen with an intimate mixture of a carbon monoxide reduction catalyst, such as a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst or a methanol synthesis catalyst, and an acidic crystalline aluminosilicate having a pore dimension greater than about 5 Angstroms to produce hydrocarbon mixtures useful in the manufacture of heating fuels, high octane gasoline, aromatic hydrocarbons, and chemicals intermediates. ... The method ... wherein said acidic crystalline aluminosilicate is a H-ZSM-5 crystalline zeolite. This invention is concerned with an improved process for converting synthesis gas, i.e., mixtures of gaseous carbon oxides with hydrogen ... to hydrocarbon mixtures. Processes for the conversion of coal ... to a gaseous mixture consisting essentially of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, or of hydrogen and carbon dioxide, or of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, are well known";

key to ExxonMobil's own "MTG"(r) Coal-to-Methanol-to-Gasoline process, wherein Coal is first gasified to generate, as used in the process of our subject herein, a gas blend of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen.)

Background and Field: The present invention relates to catalytic materials, structures, systems, and methods. More particularly, the present invention relates to catalytic structures including zeolite materials, and to systems and methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules from hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using such catalytic structures.

Carbon dioxide gas (CO2) may be converted into liquid fuels such as, for example, hydrocarbon molecules of between about 5 carbon atoms and about 12 carbon atoms per molecule (e.g., gasoline) through multi-step reactions.

(Note, again, that summary statement, as appears in our earlier report concerning: "United States Patent 7,879,749 - Methods of Using Structures Including Catalytic Materials Disposed Within Porous Zeolite Materials to Synthesize Hydrocarbons; 2011"; and, is repeated here:

"Carbon dioxide gas (CO2) may be converted into liquid fuels such as, for example, hydrocarbon molecules of between about 5 carbon atoms and about 12 carbon atoms per molecule (e.g., gasoline) through multi-step reactions".)

For example, carbon dioxide (CO2) gas and hydrogen (H2) may be converted to carbon monoxide (CO) gas and water (H2O) through the Reverse Water-Gas Shift Reaction ... .

(As per our above-cited report concerning: "United States Patent Application 20030113244 - Method for Producing Carbon Monoxide by Reverse Conversion with an Adapted Catalyst".)

Synthesis gas, which is a mixture of carbon monoxide gas (CO) and hydrogen gas (H2) then may be produced from the reaction products of the Reverse Water-Gas Shift Reaction by adding additional hydrogen gas (H2) to the reaction products. This synthesis gas may be further reacted through either Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processes, or through methanol synthesis (MS) plus methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) processes, to provide liquid fuels. 

As mentioned above, synthesis gas may also be reacted by first performing a methanol synthesis (MS) process, and then performing a methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process to produce liquid fuels. Methanol synthesis (MS) processes involve the catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and water to methanol and other reaction byproducts.

The methanol-to-gas (MTG) process involves the conversion of methanol to hydrocarbon molecules using zeolite catalysts.

Summary: (The) present invention includes methods of synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules having two or more carbon atoms in which hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are contacted with a catalytic structure. The catalytic structure includes a zeolite material that is capable of catalyzing the formation of hydrocarbon molecules having two or more carbon atoms from methanol, and at least one catalytic material that is capable of catalyzing the formation of methanol from at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.

(The) catalytic structures, systems, and methods described herein may facilitate economic utilization of carbon dioxide from stationary carbon dioxide sources, such as coal-powered and hydrocarbon-powered electricity generation plants, which otherwise may be vented to atmosphere."

---------------------------  

Gosh, that "economic utilization of carbon dioxide from ... coal-powered ... electricity generation plants" has a nice ring to it, doesn't it?

Especially when that "economic utilization of carbon dioxide from ... coal-powered ... electricity generation plants" leads to the synthesis of "liquid fuels ... (e.g., gasoline)".

We Coal Country troglodytes need to pull our heads out of wherever we've got them stuffed, send OPEC packing, and, tell anyone who's pushing Crap & Trade CO2 taxes to go stuff them.

We could put a big bunch of Coal Country people to work collecting our byproduct Carbon Dioxide and, as taught herein by our own United States Government's Department of Energy, converting that CO2 into Gasoline.

Coal Country press: Time to get real; time to show your real colors; time to hoist your real flags.


West Virginia Coal Association - PO Box 3923 - Charleston, WV 25339 | 304-342-4153 | website developed by brickswithoutstraw