United States Patent: 7592291

We first remind you of two of our more recent reports:

USDOE 2011 CO2 to Gasoline | Research & Development | News; concerning:

"United States Patent 7,879,749 - Methods of Using Structures Including Catalytic Materials Disposed Within Porous Zeolite Materials to Synthesize Hydrocarbons; Date: February 1, 2011; nventors: Harry Rollins, et. al., Idaho; Assignee: Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Twin Falls, Idaho (USDOE Idaho National Laboratory); Abstract: Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from ... carbon dioxide, andthe zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. Government Interests: This invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC07-05ID14517 awarded by the United States Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention. ... Carbon dioxide gas (CO2) may be converted into liquid fuels such as, for example, hydrocarbon molecules of between about 5 and about 12 carbon atoms per molecule (e.g., gasoline) through multi-step reactions"; and:

 

USDOE 2012 Coal Power Plant CO2 to Gasoline | Research & Development | News; concerning:

"United States Patent 8,226,909 - Systems Including Catalysts in Porous Zeolite Materials Within a Reactor for Use In Synthesizing Hydrocarbons; July 24, 2012; Inventors: Harry Rollins, et. al., Idaho; Assignee: Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls; (USDOE Idaho National Laboratory); Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from ...  carbon dioxide,andthe zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. Government Interests: This invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC07-05ID14517 awarded by the United States Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention. Claims: A system for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules having two or more carbon atoms from hydrogen and ... carbon dioxide ... . Carbon dioxide gas (CO2) may be converted into liquid fuels such as, for example, hydrocarbon molecules of between about 5 carbon atoms and about 12 carbon atoms per molecule (e.g., gasoline) through multi-step reactions";

wherein our United States Government confesses that, despite all the Carbon Dioxide alarmism being now promulgated by the US EPA, and others in the Executive Branch of our United States Government, they know full well that CO2

 - - as it is co-produced in only a small way, relative to some all-natural and un-taxable sources of it's emission, all-natural sources like the Earth's inexorable processes of planetary volcanism, which don't compete, as does Coal, with strangely and unjustifiably influential alternative fuels for generating electrical power - -

is a valuable, maybe even a precious raw material resource.

CO2 can be reclaimed from whatever source most convenient to us, and, then, through a "multi-step" process which relies on a combination of already-known and established reactions, that Carbon Dioxide can be converted into, first, the immensely valuable alcohol, Methanol, and, then, through Methanol, into Gasoline.

Those two prior reports contain separate reference links more fully documenting the CO2-to-Methanol and the Methanol-to-Gasoline processes; and, we won't include further exposition of them here.

However, the USDOE has been at work on their CO2-to-Gasoline technology for some time; and, herein, we wanted to bring you documentation of some of their earlier, foundational accomplishments.

Enclosed herein is description and disclosure, by the same team of USDOE scientists responsible for the above Carbon Dioxide-to-Gasoline processes of "US Patent 8,226,909 - Systems Including Catalysts in Porous Zeolite Materials Within a Reactor for Use In Synthesizing Hydrocarbons"  and  "US Patent 7,879,749 - Methods of Using Structures Including Catalytic Materials Disposed Within Porous Zeolite Materials to Synthesize Hydrocarbons", of the method whereby the "catalytic structure", which for which the method of "Using" is disclosed in "US Patent 7,879,749", is actually made.

And, so that there is no mistake, here is an advance excerpt taken from deep within the full Disclosure of the document we bring you herein, one which is repeated in the subsequent  "US Patent 7,879,749" and "US Patent 8,226,909":

"Carbon dioxide gas (CO2) may be converted into liquid fuels such as, for example, hydrocarbon molecules of between about 5 and about 12 carbon atoms per molecule (e.g., gasoline) through multi-step reactions".

Comment follows relatively brief excerpts from the initial link in this dispatch to the rather anonymously titled:

"United States Patent 7,592,291 - Method of Fabricating a Catalytic Structure  

Patent US7592291 - Method of fabricating a catalytic structure - Google Patents

Method of fabricating a catalytic structure - Batelle Energy Alliance, LLC

Date: September 22, 2009

Inventors: Harry Rollins, et. al., Idaho

Assignee: Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID

(As documented in our prior reports concerning these rather astonishing accomplishments by USDOE scientist Harry Rollins and his colleagues, "Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC" operates the Idaho National Laboratory for the United States Department of Energy.)

Abstract: A precursor to a catalytic structure comprising zinc oxide and copper oxide. The zinc oxide has a sheet-like morphology or a spherical morphology and the copper oxide comprises particles of copper oxide. The copper oxide is reduced to copper, producing the catalytic structure. The catalytic structure is fabricated by a hydrothermal process. A reaction mixture comprising a zinc salt, a copper salt, a hydroxyl ion source, and a structure-directing agent is formed. The reaction mixture is heated under confined volume conditions to produce the precursor. The copper oxide in the precursor is reduced to copper. A method of hydrogenating a carbon oxide using the catalytic structure is also disclosed, as is a system that includes the catalytic structure.

Government Interests: The United States Government has certain rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC07-05ID14517 between the United States Department of Energy and Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC.

Claims: A method of fabricating a catalytic structure, comprising: heating reaction mixture comprising a zinc salt, a copper salt, a hydroxyl ion source, and a structure-directing agent in a closed vessel to produce a precursor comprising zinc oxide and copper oxide, the zinc oxide having a sheet-like morphology or a spherical morphology. 

The method ... wherein heating a reaction mixture comprising a zinc salt, a copper salt, a hydroxyl ion source, and a structure-directing agent in a closed vessel comprises selecting the zinc salt from a compound selected from the group consisting of a zinc alkoxide, zinc acetate, zinc carbonate, zinc carbonate hydroxide, zinc citrate, zinc lactate, zinc nitrate, zinc oxalate, zinc stearate, zinc sulfate, and combinations thereof. 

The method ... wherein heating a reaction mixture comprising a zinc salt, a copper salt, a hydroxyl ion source, and a structure-directing agent in a closed vessel comprises selecting the copper salt from a compound selected from the group consisting of copper acetate, copper acetate monohydrate, copper acetate hydrate, copper carbonate, copper formate hydrate, copper gluconate, copper hydroxide, copper methoxide, copper nitrate, copper nitrate hydrate, copper tartrate hydrate, and combinations thereof. 

The method ... wherein heating a reaction mixture comprising a zinc salt, a copper salt, a hydroxyl ion source, and a structure-directing agent in a closed vessel comprises selecting the hydroxyl ion source from a compound selected from the group consisting of hexamethylenetetramine, ammonium hydroxide, ethylene diamine, triethanolamine, ammonia, hydrazine, and combinations thereof.  

(The "Claims" go on in some appreciable length, describing how the above are to be processed and formed. It is pretty much all just the chemistry of physical processing of the catalytic structure, so that it can be used effectively in the hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide - and, of Carbon Monoxide. Either can be used herein, but, only Carbon Dioxide is actually needed. It may be visualized or conceptualized to be transformed, through reactions with Hydrogen, into Carbon Monoxide, with the resulting Carbon Monoxide being combined with more Hydrogen to compose a hydrocarbon synthesis gas, which is then catalytically, chemically condensed into Methanol, and the Methanol subsequently transformed into Gasoline.)

Background and Field: The present invention relates to catalytic materials, systems, and methods. More particularly, the present invention relates to precursor catalytic structures including copper oxide and zinc oxide, catalytic structures including copper and zinc oxide, and to a system and a method for producing alcohols from hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using such catalytic structures. The present invention also relates to methods of fabricating such catalytic structures.

(As summed-up above, there is nothing really rare or exotic or expensive - - i.e., basically "copper oxide and zinc oxide" - - in the catalyst structure. Some ammonia compounds and organic components are added, but this isn't based on materials that are prohibitively expensive or on processing techniques that are on the "fringe")  

Carbon dioxide gas (CO2) may be converted into liquid fuels such as, for example, hydrocarbon molecules of between about 5 and about 12 carbon atoms per molecule (e.g., gasoline) through multi-step reactions.

For example, carbon dioxide (CO2) gas and hydrogen (H2) may be converted to carbon monoxide (CO) gas and water (H2O) through the Reverse Water-Gas Shift Reaction .... . Synthesis gas, which is a mixture of carbon monoxide gas (CO) and hydrogen gas (H2) then may be produced from the reaction products of the Reverse Water-Gas Shift Reaction by adding additional hydrogen gas (H.2) to the reaction products. This synthesis gas may be further reacted through either Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processes, or through methanol synthesis (MS) plus methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) processes, to provide liquid fuels. 

As mentioned ... , synthesis gas may also be reacted by first performing a methanol synthesis (MS) process, and then performing a methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process to produce liquid fuels. Methanol synthesis (MS) processes involve the catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and water to methanol and other reaction byproducts.

The methanol-to-gas (MTG) process involves the conversion of methanol to hydrocarbon molecules using zeolite catalysts ...  . The methanol-to-gas (MTG) process occurs in two steps. First, methanol is heated to about 300 C and partially dehydrated over an alumina catalyst ... to yield an equilibrium mixture of methanol, dimethyl ether, and water. This effluent is then mixed with synthesis gas and introduced into a reactor containing a zeolite catalyst (such as, for example, a ZSM-5 zeolite)".

-----------------

We'll close there to remind you that the above "ZSM-5 zeolite" is, as seen in our report of:

Mobil Oil 1978 Coal Conversion with Zeolite Catalyst | Research & Development | News; concerning:"United States Patent 4,086,262 - Conversion of Synthesis Gas to Hydrocarbon Mixtures; 1978; Assignee: Mobil Oil Corporation, NY; Abstract: Contacting a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen with an intimate mixture of a carbon monoxide reduction catalyst, such as a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst or a methanol synthesis catalyst, and an acidic crystalline aluminosilicate having a pore dimension greater than about 5 Angstroms to produce hydrocarbon mixtures useful in the manufacture of heating fuels, high octane gasoline, aromatic hydrocarbons, and chemicals intermediates. ... The method ... wherein said acidic crystalline aluminosilicate is a H-ZSM-5 crystalline zeolite. Processes for the conversion of coal ... to a gaseous mixture consisting essentially of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, or of hydrogen and carbon dioxide, or of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, are well known";

key to some long-known processes for the indirect conversion of our abundant Coal, through an initial gasification and Methanol synthesis, into Gasoline.

And, since elemental, molecular Hydrogen  is needed by the process in which the "Catalytic Structure" of our subject herein, "United States Patent 7,592,291", is to be utilized, wherein Carbon Dioxide is converted, first, into Methanol, and, then, through the Methanol, into Gasoline, we remind you that, as seen for only one example in: 

USDOE 2014 Sunshine Extracts Hydrogen from Water | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 8,729,798 - Anti-reflective Nanoporous Silicon for Efficient Hydrogen Production; 2014; Assignee: Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, Golden, CO (USDOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Abstract: Exemplary embodiments are disclosed of anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production by photoelectrolysis of water. Government Interests: The United States Government has rights in this invention under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 between the United States Department of Energy and the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, the manager and operator of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory";

our USDOE is getting pretty good at extracting that needed Hydrogen from the abundant Water, H2O, molecule, in processes that can be powered by freely-available sunlight.

In sum, whenever we, the American people, are finally ready to get real about solving our conjectured problem of Carbon Dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere and our most definitely crippling problem of reliance on OPEC for our supply of, at least, Gasoline, we, the American people, through our United States Government's Department of Energy, own the tools by which those problems, real and/or perceived, can be productively solved.

Isn't anyone out there in the United States of America, especially anyone in United States Coal Country, ready, finally, to get real about it all?


West Virginia Coal Association - PO Box 3923 - Charleston, WV 25339 | 304-342-4153 | website developed by brickswithoutstraw