United States Patent Application: 0140238869

The Carbon Dioxide "game" is over. And so is OPEC's reign of economic tyranny.

If our Coal Country news media could ever screw up the guts to tell us, or put away their own delusional fascination with the ephemeral shale gas tulip mania to focus on developments related to the bedrock of American energy, Coal, we would no longer have to put up with the threats of CO2 Cap and Trade tax extortions on our economically essential Coal-fired electric power generation industries, or other duplicitous and vile greenhouse gas CO2 nonsense and threats - - and, we all could, as a nation, tell OPEC exactly where they could start pumping their over-priced oil. 

 

It would be more of an "import", than an export, operation.  

As we have documented many times, as in:

US Navy 2008 CO2 to Synfuel | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 7,420,004 - Producing Synthetic Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels; 2008; Assignee: The USA, as represented by the Secretary of the Navy; Abstract: A process for producing synthetic hydrocarbons that reacts carbon dioxide, obtained from seawater or air, and hydrogen obtained from water, with a catalyst in a chemical process such as reverse water gas shift combined with Fischer Tropsch synthesis.The hydrogen is produced by ... ocean thermal energy conversion, or any other source that is fossil fuel-free, such as wind or wave energy. The process can be either land based or sea based"; and:

US Navy Awarded September, 2011, CO2 Recycling Patent | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 8,017,658 - Synthesis of Hydrocarbons via Catalytic Reduction of CO2; September 13, 2011; Inventors:Nick Tran, Dennis Hardy, et. al., DC and VA; Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy; Abstract: A method of: introducing hydrogen and a feed gas containing at least 50 % carbon dioxide into a reactor containing a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst; and heating the hydrogen and carbon dioxide to a temperature of at least about 190 C. to produce hydrocarbons in the reactor. An apparatus having: a reaction vessel for containing a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, capable of heating gases to at least about 190 C.; a hydrogen delivery system feeding into the reaction vessel; a carbon dioxide delivery system for delivering a feed gas containing at least 50 % carbon dioxide feeding into the reaction vessel; and a trap for collecting hydrocarbons generated in the reaction vessel"; and:

US Navy May 7, 2013, CO2 to Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 8,436,457 - Synthesis of Hydrocarbons Via Catalytic Reduction of CO2; May 7, 2013; Inventors: Nick Tran, Dennis Hardy, Samuel Lambrakos, John Michopoulos; DC, MD and VA; Assignee: The United States of America, as represented by the Secretary of the Navy; Abstract: A method of: introducing hydrogen and a feed gas containing at least 50 vol % carbon dioxide into a reactor containing a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst; and heating the hydrogen and carbon dioxide to a temperature of at least about 190 C to produce hydrocarbons in the reactor. An apparatus having: a reaction vessel for containing a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, capable of heating gases to at least about 190 C; a hydrogen delivery system feeding into the reaction vessel; a carbon dioxide delivery system for delivering a feed gas containing at least 50 vol % carbon dioxide feeding into the reaction vessel; and a trap for collecting hydrocarbons generated in the reaction vessel"; and:.

US Navy 2014 CO2 to Jet Fuel | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United State Patent 8,658,554 - Catalytic Support for Use In Carbon Dioxide Hydrogenation Reactions; February 25, 2014; Inventors: Robert Dorner, Heather Willauer, and Dennis Hardy, IL, VA and MD; Assignee: The United States of America as Represented by the Secretary of the Navy; Abstract: A catalyst support which may be used to support various catalysts for use in reactions for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide including a catalyst support material and an active material capable of catalyzing a reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction associated with the catalyst support material. A catalyst for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide may be supported on the catalyst support. A method for making a catalyst for use in hydrogenation of carbon dioxide ... . A catalyst support supporting a catalyst for hydrogenating carbon dioxide and thereby forming long chain hydrocarbons, the catalyst support comprising a catalyst support material capable of forming long chain hydrocarbons and an active material capable of catalyzing a reverse water-gas shift reaction associated with the catalyst support material; wherein the catalyst support material comprises ceria; and wherein the active material comprises iron carbide. ... A method for making a catalyst support for use in carbon dioxide hydrogenation reactions and the formation of long chain hydrocarbons comprising the step of: associating an active material capable of catalyzing a reverse water-gas shift reaction with a catalyst support material capable of forming long chain hydrocarbons; wherein the catalyst support material comprises ceria; and wherein the active material comprises iron carbide. .... One can envisage a process leading to jet fuel, where the needed carbon source is obtained by harvesting CO2 dissolved in the ocean (primarily in the form of bicarbonate) and hydrogen through the electrolysis of water";

the genuine patriots employed by and enlisted in our United States Navy have developed a complete technology for directly and efficiently converting CO2, as extracted and concentrated from the environment, along with Hydrogen concurrently extracted from the abundant Water, H2O, molecule into "synthetic hydrocarbons" such as "jet fuel".

Moreover, as seen in our reports of:

US Navy Recovers Environmental CO2 for Hydrocarbon Synthesis | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 8,313,557 - Recovery of CO2 from Seawater/Aqueous Bicarbonate Systems; 2012; Inventors: Heather Willauer, et. al., VA and MD; Assignee: The United States of America as Represented by the Secretary of the Navy; Abstract: The present invention is generally directed to a system for recovering CO2 from seawater or aqueous bicarbonate solutions using a gas permeable membrane with multiple layers. ... Also disclosed is the related method of recovering CO2 from seawater or aqueous bicarbonate solutions. The present invention relates generally to CO2 extraction and, more specifically, to recovery of CO2 from seawater and/or aqueous bicarbonate systems using a multi-layer gas permeable membrane. ... There is interest in producing synthetic fuel from renewable sources on sea-based vessels to avoid the risks in procuring fuel from foreign sources and/or in maintaining long supply lines. The procurement and transportation risk can be reduced by producing synthetic fuel from hydrogen and carbon generated near the point of fuel use.The ocean is a possible resource for carbon dioxide. In the atmosphere, the concentration of CO2 approximately is 370 ppm (and) CO2 in seawater is about 140 times greater than air. (If) carbon dioxide could be economically and efficiently extracted ... (then it) could be proposed to utilize this carbon as a chemical feedstock in processes such as catalytic polymerization with hydrogen"; and:.

US Navy Harvests CO2 from Seawater for Hydrocarbon Synthesis | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent Application 20130206605 - Extraction of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen from Seawater and Hydrocarbon Production Therefrom; August 15, 2013; Inventors: Felice DiMascio, Dennis Hardy, et. al., CT, MD, VA and PA; Assignee: The Government of the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy; Abstract: Apparatus for seawater acidification including an ion exchange, cathode and anode electrode compartments and cation-permeable membranes that separate the electrode compartments from the ion exchange compartment. Means is provided for feeding seawater through the ion exchange compartment and for feeding a dissociable liquid media through the anode and cathode electrode compartments. A cathode is located in the cathode electrode compartment and an anode is located in the anode electrode compartment and a means for application of current to the cathode and anode is provided. A method for the acidification of seawater by subjecting the seawater to an ion exchange reaction to exchange H+ ions for Na+ ions. Carbon dioxide may be extracted from the acidified seawater. Optionally, the ion exchange reaction can be conducted under conditions which produce hydrogen as well as carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide and hydrogen may be used to produce hydrocarbons"; and:

The US Navy Harvests More CO2 for Hydrocarbon Synthesis | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 8,663,365 - Method for the Continuous Recovery of Carbon Dioxide from Acidified Seawater; March 4, 2014; Inventors: Heather Willauer, et. al., VA, WV, CT and MD; Abstract: A method for recovering carbon dioxide from acidified seawater using a membrane contactor and passing seawater with a pH less than or equal to 6 over the outside of a hollow fiber membrane tube while applying vacuum or a hydrogen sweep gas to the inside of the hollow fiber membrane tube, wherein up to 92% of the re-equilibrated CO2 is removed from the natural seawater. The present invention provides a method for recovering re-equilibrated CO2 from acidified natural seawater using a membrane contactor and passing (acidified) seawater ... over the outside of the hollow fiber membrane tube while applying vacuum or a hydrogen sweep gas to the inside of the membrane tube, wherein up to 92% of the re-equilibrated CO2 ...  is removed from the natural seawater. The method of the present invention requires only vacuum or a sweep gas to recover low concentrations of CO2 from acidified seawater ... . In the case of vacuum, CO2 can be concentrated in proportions needed for feedstock. In the case of hydrogen as a sweep gas, no additional energy penalty is required to recover the CO2. The hydrogen/CO2 mixture produced in the acidification of the seawater can be used directly as a feedstock";

our United States Navy has, as well, been devising the technologies needed for harvesting Carbon Dioxide and, as in the above-cited  "United States Patent Application 20130206605 - Extraction of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen from Seawater and Hydrocarbon Production Therefrom",. Hydrogen, from, at least, "seawater", for use "as a feedstock" "to produce hydrocarbons". 

And, herein we see that the Navy has even further refined their technology for extracting, in an integrated, even synergistic, more energy-efficient process, both Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen, which can be used as the feedstock for hydrocarbon synthesis - - as in,  for just one example, the above-cited "US Patent 8,436,457 - Synthesis of Hydrocarbons Via Catalytic Reduction of CO2" - - not just from "seawater", but, with even further-reaching implications, from "alkaline water sources".

Comment follows relatively brief excerpts from the initial link in this dispatch to the very recent publication of:

"United States Patent Application 20140238869 - Electrochemical Module Configuration for the Continuous Acidification of Alkaline Water Sources and Recovery of CO2 with Continuous Hydrogen Gas Production

Patent US20140238869 - Electrochemical module configuration for the continuous acidification of ... - Google Patents

ELECTROCHEMICAL MODULE CONFIGURATION FOR THE CONTINUOUS ACIDIFICATION OF ALKALINE WATER SOURCES AND RECOVERY OF CO2 WITH CONTI

August 28, 2014

Inventors: Felice DiMascio, Heather Willauer, Dennis Hardy, Frederick Williams, Kathleen Lewis; CT, VA, MD & PA

(No "Assignee" of Rights is named, as is the case in nearly all initial United States Patent Application publications. But, it will be, without doubt, eventually revealed to be the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy. That fact is documented and confirmed in the international, or "world", patent application the Navy simultaneously submitted for this technology, as accessible via:

US2014019313 ELECTROCHEMICAL MODULE CONFIGURATION FOR THE CONTINUOUS ACIDIFICATION OF ALKALINE WATER SOURCES AND RECOVERY OF C)

Abstract: An electrochemical cell for the continuous acidification of alkaline water sources and recovery of carbon dioxide with simultaneous continuous hydrogen gas production having a center compartment, an electrolyte-free anode compartment having a mesh anode in direct contact with an ion permeable membrane, an endblock in direct contact with the anode where the endblock provides a gas escape route behind the anode, an electrolyte-free cathode compartment having a mesh cathode in direct contact with an ion permeable membrane, and an endblock in direct contact with the cathode where the endblock provides a gas escape route behind the cathode. Current applied to the electrochemical cell for generating hydrogen gas also lowers the pH of the alkaline water to produce carbon dioxide with no additional current or power. Also disclosed is the related method for continuously acidifying alkaline water sources and recovering carbon dioxide with continuous hydrogen gas production.

Claims: An electrochemical cell for the continuous acidification of alkaline water sources and recovery of carbon dioxide with continuous hydrogen gas production, comprising: a center compartment; a first ion permeable membrane adjacent to the center compartment; a mesh anode in direct contact with the first ion permeable membrane or in direct contact with a screen that is in direct contact with the first ion permeable membrane, wherein the mesh anode allows for polarity reversal, and wherein the first ion permeable membrane is a sole active mediator for protons produced at the mesh anode to transfer into the center compartment; a first end block in direct contact with the mesh anode, wherein the first end block comprises channels for a gas escape route behind the mesh anode; a second ion permeable membrane adjacent to the center compartment, wherein the first and second ion permeable membranes are on opposite sides of the center compartment; a mesh cathode in direct contact with the second ion permeable membrane or in direct contact with a screen that is in direct contact with the second ion permeable membrane, wherein the mesh cathode allows for polarity reversal, and wherein the second ion permeable membrane is a sole active mediator for cations in the center compartment that have been displaced by the protons from the anode to transfer into the cathode compartment; and a second end block in direct contact with the mesh cathode wherein the second end block comprises channels for a gas escape route behind the mesh cathode. 

The electrochemical cell ... wherein each ion permeable membrane comprises a cross-linked polymer backbone with sulfonic acid groups attached thereto (and) wherein the mesh anode and mesh cathode each comprise a material capable of promoting both water reduction and water oxidation reactions.

The electrochemical cell ... wherein the center compartment is empty (and) wherein the center compartment contains material that allows up to 100% of the center compartment to be conductive when filled with alkaline water (and) wherein the pH of the alkaline water source can be reduced to 6.0 or below within 14 minutes and more preferably within 10 minutes.

(Concerning the above claim, this is meant to be a fast, high-productivity process.)

The electrochemical cell ...  wherein when current is applied to the electrochemical cell to generate hydrogen gas, this current produces the protons at the mesh anode that lower the pH of the alkaline water to produce carbon dioxide with no additional current or power.

An electrochemical cell for the continuous acidification of alkaline water sources and recovery of carbon dioxide with continuous hydrogen gas production, comprising: a center compartment; a first ion permeable membrane adjacent to the center compartment; an electrolyte-free anode compartment comprising a mesh anode in direct contact with the first ion permeable membrane or in direct contact with a screen that is in direct contact with the first ion permeable membrane, wherein the mesh anode allows for polarity reversal; a first end block in direct contact with the mesh anode, wherein the first end block comprises channels for a gas escape route behind the mesh anode; a second ion permeable membrane adjacent to the center compartment, wherein the first and second ion permeable membranes are on opposite sides of the center compartment; an electrolyte-free cathode compartment comprising a mesh cathode in direct contact with the second ion permeable membrane or in direct contact with a screen that is in direct contact with the second ion permeable membrane, wherein the mesh cathode allows for polarity reversal; a second end block in direct contact with the mesh cathode, wherein the second end block comprises channels for a gas escape route behind the mesh cathode; and means to control the pressure differential between the center compartment and both the anode and cathode compartments.

The electrochemical cell ... wherein each ion permeable membrane comprises a cross-linked polymer backbone with sulfonic acid groups attached thereto (and) wherein the mesh anode and mesh cathode each comprise a material capable of promoting both water reduction and water oxidation reactions.

The electrochemical cell ... wherein the center compartment is empty (and/or) wherein the center compartment contains material that allows up to 100% of the center compartment to be conductive when filled with alkaline water (and) wherein a center compartment outlet pressure is maintained from 2 to 5 psi above an outlet pressure for both the anode and cathode compartments (and) wherein the pH of the alkaline water source can be reduced to 6.0 or below within 14 minutes and more preferably within 10 minutes.

The electrochemical cell ... wherein when current is applied to the electrochemical cell to generate hydrogen gas, this current produces the protons at the mesh anode that lower the pH of the alkaline water to produce carbon dioxide with no additional current or power.

The electrochemical cell ... wherein the cell is optimized by changing the conductivity of at least one ion permeable membrane, the distance between the electrodes, the electrode surface area, or any combination thereof.

A method for continuously acidifying alkaline water sources and recovering carbon dioxide with continuous hydrogen gas production, comprising: passing the alkaline water through an electrochemical cell comprising a center compartment; a first ion permeable membrane adjacent to the center compartment; an electrolyte-free anode compartment comprising a mesh anode in direct contact with the first ion permeable membrane or in direct contact with a screen that is in direct contact with the first ion permeable membrane, wherein the mesh anode allows for polarity reversal, and wherein the first ion permeable membrane is a sole active mediator for protons produced at the mesh anode to transfer into the center compartment; a first end block in direct contact with the mesh anode, wherein the first end block comprises channels for a gas escape route behind the mesh anode; a second ion permeable membrane adjacent to the center compartment, wherein the first and second ion permeable membranes are on opposite sides of the center compartment; an electrolyte-free cathode compartment comprising a mesh cathode in direct contact with the second ion permeable membrane or in direct contact with a screen that is in direct contact with the second ion permeable membrane, wherein the mesh cathode allows for polarity reversal, and wherein the second ion permeable membrane is a sole active mediator for cations in the center compartment that have been displaced by the protons from the mesh anode to transfer into the cathode compartment; a second end block in direct contact with the mesh cathode, wherein the second end block comprises channels for a gas escape route behind the mesh cathode; and means to control the pressure differential between the center compartment and both the anode and cathode compartments; wherein when the alkaline water is passed through the cell, sodium ions transfer through the second ion permeable membrane and are replaced by hydrogen ions.

The method ... wherein when current is applied to the electrochemical cell to generate hydrogen gas, this current produces the protons at the mesh anode that lower the pH of the alkaline water to produce carbon dioxide with no additional current or power.

(The above claim encapsulates the genius of this process. The electrolytic generation of Hydrogen from the "alkaline water" automatically and synergistically triggers the release of Carbon Dioxide.)

Brief Summary: The present invention provides an electrochemical cell for the continuous acidification of alkaline water sources and recovery of carbon dioxide with continuous hydrogen gas production having a center compartment, an electrolyte-free anode compartment having a mesh anode in direct contact with an ion permeable membrane, an end block in direct contact with the mesh anode where the end block has channels for a gas escape route behind the mesh anode, an electrolyte-free cathode compartment having a mesh cathode in direct contact with an ion permeable membrane, an end block in direct contact with the mesh cathode where the end block has channels for a gas escape route behind the mesh cathode, and a mechanism to control the pressure differential between the center compartment and the electrodes. When alkaline water is passed through the electrochemical cell, current is applied to the cell for generating hydrogen gas in the cathode compartment. As this occurs, sodium ions transfer through the ion permeable membrane and are replaced by hydrogen ions from the anode compartment. The pH of the alkaline water is lowered and carbon dioxide is produced with no additional current or power applied. Also disclosed is the related method for continuously acidifying alkaline water sources and recovering carbon dioxide with continuous hydrogen gas production.

The present invention has several advantages over the prior art. It is a method that only requires electricity and does not require acidic or caustic materials in the recovery of carbon from seawater. The method eliminates the use of moderate conductive water and ion exchange media and relies solely on the ion exchange properties of the ion permeable membranes in the electrode compartments.

Electrolytic cells contain an electrolyte (usually acidic or caustic) in the electrode compartments and a conductive material in compartments in between, such as ion exchange resins. Ion exchange resins have chemical functional groups attached to a polymeric structure and can be consider an immobile electrolyte. The present invention does not use an electrolyte or ion exchange resin.

The present invention provides a revolutionary electrolytic module design that improves long term CO2 process extraction efficiencies from alkaline water sources. The purpose of the present invention is to electrically extract all bicarbonate/carbonate system carbon from alkaline water sources such as seawater and simultaneously produce hydrogen gas.

Water of moderate conductivity and ion exchange resins, which have fixed ionic charges, are typically used as a conductive media in electrode compartments of electrolytic modules, particularly electrolytic modules containing at least one ion exchange membrane. These modules are typically configured but are not limited to electrodialysis applications.

The present invention provides a novel electrolytic module configuration that was developed to avoid the use of moderately conductive water and ion exchange resins, such as cation exchange resins. This new configuration relies on the ion exchange properties of the ion permeable membranes separating the electrode compartments. In the application of extracting carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas from alkaline water sources using an electrolytic module, the time to achieve an acidic pH after a polarity reversal and the electrical resistance (or power consumption) must be minimized. This reduction increases the long term process efficiency of CO2 extraction from alkaline water sources.

A novel feature of the cell of the present invention is that the applied current to produce hydrogen gas (H2) in the cathode compartment also concurrently makes use of hydrogen ions (H+) produced in the anode compartment without an active mediator such as an electrolyte or ion exchange resin, which migrate into the center compartment causing the pH of the alkaline water to lower. This lowering of pH causes the conversion of carbonate and bicarbonate ions to carbon dioxide (CO2). Because of this, no additional current or power is required to lower the pH of alkaline waters and produce CO2."

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First of all, this technology calls for the use of "alkaline water" as the Carbon Dioxide absorbent, or carrier. When used as an adjective, "alkaline" could mean a water solution containing carbonate and bicarbonate salts of metals from either the first or second Groups of the Periodic Table of Elements - i.e., Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, etc., which are both, respectively, "alkali" and "alkaline" metals.

For a discussion of the formalities, see:

http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-alkali-and-alkaline-2/.

And, actually, both have been specified in technologies, like those seen in our reports of:

California Lowers Cost of Flue Gas CO2 Capture for USDOE | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 8,771,403 - Method and System for Capturing Carbon Dioxide and/or Sulfur Dioxide from Gas Streams; 2014; Assignee: The Regents of the University of California; Abstract: The present invention provides a system for capturing CO2 and/or SO2, comprising: (a) a CO2 and/or SO2 absorber comprising an amine and/or amino acid salt capable of absorbing the CO2 and/or SO2 to produce a CO2- and/or SO2-containing solution; (b) an amine regenerator to regenerate the amine and/or amino acid salt; and, when the system captures CO2, c) an alkali metal carbonate regenerator comprising an ammonium catalyst capable catalyzing the aqueous alkali metal bicarbonate into the alkali metal carbonate and CO2 gas. Government Interests: The invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention. Claims: A system for capturing CO2, comprising: (a) a first chemical reaction vessel comprising an amine and/or amino acid salt, for absorbing the CO2 to produce an amine-COO compound and/or amino acid-COO compound in a CO2-containing solution; (b) a second chemical reaction vessel comprising an aqueous alkali metal carbonate for extracting the CO2 from the amine-COO compound and/or amino acid-COO compound in the CO2-containing solution to form an alkali metal bicarbonate solid and regenerate the amine and/or amino acid salt; and: (c) a third chemical reaction vessel for thermally regenerating the alkali metal carbonate from the alkali metal bicarbonate"; and:

Columbia University August 2012 Practical CO2 Air Capture | Research & Development | News; concerning:

"United States Patent 8,246,731 - Systems and Methods for Extraction of Carbon Dioxide from Air; 2012;
Assignee: The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York; Abstract: The present invention describes methods and systems for extracting, capturing, reducing, storing, sequestering, or disposing of carbon dioxide (CO2), particularly from the air. The CO2 extraction methods and systems involve the use of chemical processes. Methods are also described for extracting and/or capturing CO2 via exposing air containing carbon dioxide to - - a basic solution which absorbs carbon dioxide and produces a carbonate solution. The solution is causticized and the temperature is increased to release carbon dioxide, followed by hydration of solid components to regenerate the base. The system ...  further comprising a supply of basic solution in fluid connection with said wet scrubbing mechanism (and) wherein the base material included in said basic solution is selected from sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, and potassium hydroxide.  The system ... wherein the base material is sodium hydroxide (and) wherein the carbonate solution is a sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) solution.The present invention is generally directed to methods and components that can be utilized to design a plant comprising a self-contained system for extraction of CO2 directly from air using wet scrubbing techniques. In (one) embodiment, the present invention relates to methods of transitioning from today's energy system comprising unsequestered CO2 resulting from the use of fossil fuels to the capture and disposal of CO2, and ultimately, to renewable energy with recycling of CO2. In this embodiment, CO2 can be removed from the air, but rather than disposing of the removed CO2, it is used as a feedstock for making new fuel";

for use in capturing Carbon Dioxide from both the atmosphere and from flue gases, although those technologies generally call for an application of heat, as opposed to the Navy's highly-efficient use of electricity and Hydrogen ions, to release the Carbon Dioxide and to regenerate the CO2 absorbent.

The point being that the US Navy process of our subject, "United States Patent Application 20140238869 - Electrochemical Module Configuration for the Continuous Acidification of Alkaline Water Sources and Recovery of CO2 with Continuous Hydrogen Gas Production"; could be applied to plain old seawater, and to solutions that have scrubbed Carbon Dioxide from either atmospheric air or Coal power plant flue gas.

Further, although not reflected in our excerpts, the Navy demonstrates how the electrolytic extraction of Hydrogen from the Water molecule enables the much more efficient electrolytic, as opposed to thermal, extraction of Carbon Dioxide gas from the seawater, or from the scrubbing solution.

It is a very energy efficient process, as the Navy clearly illustrates in the full Disclosure.

And, although the Navy clearly intends to use the captured and very-efficiently released Carbon Dioxide, along with the concurrently and cost-effectively extracted Hydrogen, in a process like that disclosed in their "United States Patent 7,420,004 - Producing Synthetic Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels; 2008",  for the production of, well, "Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels", that is, replacements for fuels we now debase our nation and impoverish our citizens to continue buying from OPEC, keep in mind, that, as seen in our report of:

NASA 2014 CO2 to Methane | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 8,710,106 - Sabatier Process and Apparatus for Controlling Exothermic Reaction; 2014; Assignee: Precision Combustion, Inc., CT; Abstract: A Sabatier process involving contacting carbon dioxide and hydrogen in a first reaction zone with a first catalyst bed at a temperature greater than a first designated temperature; feeding the effluent from the first reaction zone into a second reaction zone, and contacting the effluent with a second catalyst bed at a temperature equal to or less than a second designated temperature, so as to produce a product stream comprising water and methane. The first and second catalyst beds each individually comprise an ultra-short-channel-length metal substrate. An apparatus for controlling temperature in an exothermic reaction, such as the Sabatier reaction, is disclosed. Government Support: This invention was made with support from the U.S. government under U.S. Contract No. NNX10CF25P sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The U.S. Government holds certain rights in this invention. Claims: A process of converting a mixture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen into a mixture of water and methane";

our United States Government also knows how to use such efficiently harvested Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen to synthesize a virtually endless supply of substitute, fracking-free natural gas Methane.

Clearly: Our United States Government now has all the technologies in hand to - - through the efficient harvesting of Carbon Dioxide and the direct synthesis, from that harvested Carbon Dioxide, of any and all forms of hydrocarbon fuels - - both set our nation free from crippling economic bondage to OPEC and take the increasingly burdensome yoke of Carbon Dioxide emissions wrangling off the back of our vital and economically essential Coal-fired power generation industry.

And, those benefits would be in addition to the many, many thousands of US jobs that would be directly and indirectly created by an industry founded on the harvesting of Carbon Dioxide and it's subsequent consumption and use in the manufacture of any and all forms of hydrocarbon fuels.

It is far, far past time our United States Government fully, openly, and honestly, informed all United States citizens of those critical facts.


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