United States Patent: 8679368

The United States Department of Defense, as recently confirmed by technical experts in a separate branch of our United States Government, knows how to react hydrocarbon synthesis gas, a blend of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen made by the "gasification" of Coal and/or Biomass, with more Coal and/or Biomass, and thereby produce synthetic petroleum.

 

We've earlier reported on such potentials, which had begun to be developed fairly close to home more than a quarter of a century ago, as seen in our report of:

1970's Coal Liquefaction Using Synthesis Gas | Research & Development | News; concerning: "Catalytic Liquefaction of Coal;1976; Pittsburgh,PA, Energy Research Center; U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration; Most catalytic liquefaction processes for producing low-sulfur liquid fuel from coal use large amounts of hydrogen which will have to be produced at high cost. In our previous work, we reported our attempt to use low-cost syngas to hydrotreat coal in the presence of added water, vehicle, and cobalt molybdate-sodium carbonate catalyst. Catalytic coal liquefaction using syngas reduces the capital and operating costs ... . New catalysts have been prepared and tested with syngas to promote liquefaction and desulfurization as well as water-gas shift conversion. Cobalt molybdate catalyst impregnated with alkali metal ... exhibited good activities for these reactions. The liquefaction of coal by syngas, like that by hydrogen, appears to proceed via production of asphaltene and conversion of the asphaltene to oil. The liquefaction of coal was studied ... (with) Kentucky Bituminous and West Virginia Bituminous".

The reaction of Coal with synthesis gas, to rather directly produce hydrocarbons, is similar in some respects to the direct reaction of Coal with heated Hydrogen alone to effect the same end, as in our report of:

California Rocket Scientists Liquefy Coal | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 4,169,128 - Coal Liquefaction Apparatus; 1979; Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation, El Segundo; Abstract: Disclosure is made of an apparatus for reacting carbonaceous material with heated hydrogen to form hydrocarbon gases and liquids suitable for conversion to fuels wherein the reaction involves injection of carbonaceous material such as pulverized coal entrained in a minimum amount of gas and mixing the entrained coal at near ambient temperature with a separate source of heated hydrogen. The hydrogen is heated in a coil having an increasing inside diameter. The heated hydrogen and entrained coal are injected through a rocket engine type injector device. The coal particles are reacted with hydrogen in a reaction chamber downstream of the injector. The products of reaction are rapidly quenched as they exit the reaction chamber and are subsequently collected. Claims: An apparatus for reacting a carbonaceous material with hydrogen to produce hydrocarbon liquids and gases which (includes) electrical heating means for heating said source of hydrogen".

And, it also similar to the reaction of Coal with Methane to generate hydrocarbons, as in our report of:

Standard Oil Converts Coal with Methane and Hydrogen | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 4,326,944 - Rapid Hydropyrolysis of Carbonaceous Solids; 1982; Inventor: James Meyer, et. al., Illinois; Assignee: Standard Oil Company of Indiana; A method is disclosed for recovering liquids and gases by a rapid hydropyrolysis of carbonaceous solids which comprises subjecting the carbonaceous material in a stream of carrier gas to (conditions as described).  A process for treating crushed solid carbonaceous material to obtain therefrom liquid and gaseous products, comprising: subjecting the carbonaceous material in a stream of carrier gas to (conditions as described). The process ... wherein the stabilizing material or the producing material is additionally a component of the carrier gas (and)  wherein the stabilizing material (is) hydrogen and the producing material is ... methane.  The process ... wherein the carbonaceous material is coal (and/or) wherein the carbonaceous material is biomass. The process ...wherein the total time is in the range of from about 2 milliseconds to about 50 milliseconds.This invention relates generally to the recovery of liquid and gaseous products from carbonaceous materials such as coal ... and biomass and more particularly concerns the rapid and direct conversion of such carbonaceous materials ... .  (It) is generally recognized that the conversion of carbonaceous materials, such as coal ... to the desired liquid and gaseous products can be maximized by stabilizing the liquid products initially formed. This is often effected by reaction of the liquid products with a stabilizing material such as hydrogen ... . The overall effect of thermal decomposition in the presence of such a stabilizing material or a source thereof is a much larger yield of the desired liquids and a lower char yield".

In essence, such technologies relate to the direct reaction of hot gases containing Hydrogen, simple Hydrocarbons, and blends of Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide, with Coal and/or Biomass, wherein the products of the reaction comprise hydrocarbons of one sort or another.

One characteristic of such processes is that they are most often described as being very fast, with a potentially very high productivity. 

And, herein we see that our United States Department of Defense has further developed that high-speed conversion of Coal and Carbon-recycling, renewable Biomass into hydrocarbons, which hydrocarbon blend is perhaps best described as synthetic petroleum or "synthetic hydrocarbons", which can be used as, or processed into, liquid hydrocarbon fuels.

Comment follows and is inserted within excerpts from the initial link in this dispatch to:

"United States Patent 8,679,368 - Synthetic Hydrocarbon Production by Direct Reduction of Carbonaceous Materials with Synthesis Gas

Patent US8679368 - Synthetic hydrocarbon production by direct reduction of carbonaceous ... - Google Patents

Synthetic hydrocarbon production by direct reduction of carbonaceous materials with synthesis gas - Southwest Research Institu

March 25, 2014

Inventors: David Moulton and Jimell Irwin, Texas

Assignee: Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio

(We've made previous reports concerning the work of the Southwest Research Institute; SWRI, and, although we hesitate to call it a "skunk works" - - with absolutely no offense meant by that label, old timers among our audience familiar with the comic strip "Li'l Abner" will know what we mean - - it kind of "smells" that way in certain aspects. In other words, if our government has been supporting the development of anti-gravity devices and such, there might well be one tucked away somewhere in an unlabeled San Antonio lab. Again, we've made previous report of SWRI; but, for recap, see:

About Southwest Research Institute; "Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is an independent, nonprofit applied research and development organization. The staff of more than 2,800 specializes in the creation and transfer of technology in engineering and the physical sciences. Eleven technical divisions offer a wide range of technical expertise and services in such areas as engine design and development, emissions certification testing, fuels and lubricants evaluation, chemistry, space science, nondestructive evaluation, automation, mechanical engineering, electronics, and more"; and:

Southwest Research Institute - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia; "Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), headquartered in San AntonioTexas, is one of the oldest and largest independent, nonprofit, applied research and development (R&D) organizations in the United States. Founded in 1947 by oil businessman Thomas Slick, Jr., SwRI provides contract research and development services to government and industrial clients".

Abstract: A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material is described that utilizes a single liquefaction reactor that accepts mixtures of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (syngas) at any ratio and which provides for a water gas shift reaction and a hydrogenation reaction of the carbonaceous material to provide a desired hydrocarbon. The process avoids the use of a separate reactor for the water gas shift reaction and applies to carbonaceous material such as any type of coal and/or biomass containing plant and/or animal matter for conversion to a synthetic fuel.

Government Interests: This invention was made with United States Government support under Contract No. HR0011-09-C-0094 awarded by the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

(We've also made previous report of the admirable, but spooky, "U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency", "DARPA". For more info about them and their work, see:

http://www.darpa.mil/default.aspx and http://www.darpa.mil/About/History/History.aspx; "Creating and Preventing Strategic Surprise; DARPA’s history of fundamental breakthroughs has altered defense and the world as we know it. Our nation’s global technological leadership is a result of the enormous contribution Defense innovation has made. DARPA was created in 1958 as the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). The political and defense communities recognized the need for a high-level defense organization to formulate and execute R&D projects that would expand the frontiers of technology beyond the immediate and specific requirements of the Military Services and their laboratories. The Soviet Union’s launch of Sputnik showed that a fundamental change was needed in America’s defense science and technology programs. DARPA was formed to meet this need and rejuvenated our defense technological capabilities". 

Further, at this juncture in published United States Patents, patents representing applicable prior art are cited. Among those listed here are some which have appeared, for a few examples, in our reports of:

Utah High-Speed Coal Liquefaction | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 5,783,065 - Method for Coal Liquefaction; 1998; Inventors: Wendell H. Wiser, et. al., Utah; Assignee: University of Utah Research Foundation, Salt Lake City; Abstract: A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen are reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400C. at a pressure of at least 250 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1"; and: 

China Awarded 2010 US Liquefaction Patent | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 7,763,167 - Process for Direct Coal Liquefaction; July, 2010; Inventors: Yuzhuo Zhang, et. al., China; Assignee: Shenua Coal Liquefaction Corporation, Beijing; Abstract: Process for direct coal liquefaction of coal, including: ... fractionating hydrogenation products into oil products and a hydrogen donor recycling solvent. The process can operate long periods, with higher reactor efficiency and utilization factor, increased liquid oil yield and can supply high-quality feedstock for further processing. A direct coal liquefaction process. The objective of the invention is to provide a direct coal liquefaction process which can be operated steadily for a long period of time with high utilization rate of the reactor ... . Moreover, it is an objective to provide a process which can be operated under mild reaction conditions with maximum yield of liquid products which are of high qualities for further processing";

although our subject, "United States Patent 8,679,368", actually cites the US Patent Application which transitioned into the above "United States Patent 7,763,167 - Process for Direct Coal Liquefaction", and, which patent application was actually scheduled for assignment to a Japanese technology company, who were apparently acting as agents for China's "Shenua Coal Liquefaction Corporation".)

Claims: A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material in a liquefaction reactor comprising: (a) providing a carbonaceous material and separately feeding a portion to a gasification reactor and forming hydrogen and carbon monoxide gaseous products and separately feeding a portion of said carbonaceous material to said liquefaction reactor; (b) feeding the hydrogen and carbon monoxide gaseous products of the gasification reactor with water directly into said liquefaction reactor containing an inorganic metal halide salt wherein said products and materials undergo both of the following: (i) a water gas shift reaction wherein the carbon monoxide and water react to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen; (ii) a hydrogenation reaction of the carbonaceous material wherein said material is converted to a hydrocarbon; wherein said process for liquefaction of said carbonaceous material is conducted without the use of a separate reactor for reacting carbon monoxide with water to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen. 

The process ...  further comprising, in step (a), feeding one or more of water, carbon dioxide or oxygen to said gasification reactor.

(The "carbon dioxide" formed in the "water gas shift reaction", which also makes more Hydrogen, is, thus, used as an agent of gasification for the "carbonaceous material", as seen previously in, for just one example, our report of:

Texaco 1976 Coal + CO2 = Hydrocarbon Synthesis Gas | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 3,976,443 - Synthesis Gas from Solid Carbonaceous Fuel; 1976; Inventors: Peter Paull, CT, and Warren Schlinger, CA; (Assignee: Texaco, Inc.); Abstract: This is an improved continuous partial oxidation process for producing synthesis gas or fuel gas from a solid carbonaceous fuel. Liquid CO2 and a ground solid carbonaceous fuel such as coal are mixed together to produce a pumpable slurry feed. The CO2 serves as a carrier for the carbonaceous fuel and ... is preferably obtained by purifying the product gas. A process for producing a gas stream principally comprising gases selected from the group consisting of CO, CO2, H2 H2O, CH4, ... . The process ... wherein the weight ratio of CO2 to carbonaceous fuel ... is in the range of about 0.6 to 2.0. The process ... wherein H2O at a temperature in the range of about 50 to 1000F and in an amount to provide a weight ratio H2O to carbonaceous fuel in the range of 0.01 to 0.15 is introduced into the reaction zone ... . The process ... wherein said solid carbonaceous fuel is selected from the group consisting of coal, coke from coal, char from coal, ... particulate carbon soot, ... lignite, rubber, rubber tires and mixtures thereof. This invention relates to a continuous process for the production of a CO-rich gas stream by the partial oxidation of a carbonaceous fuel. More specifically, the present invention relates to the production of synthesis gas by noncatalytic partial oxidation starting with liquid CO2, solid carbonaceous fuel e.g. ground coal, and a free-oxygen containing gas e.g. air, or substantially pure oxygen. 
The present invention pertains to an improved continuous partial oxidation process for producing gas mixtures containing for example H2 and CO starting with slurries of liquid CO2 and solid particles of carbonaceous fuel".

Furthermore, note, as in our report of:

Exxon Co-Gasifies Coal and Carbon-Recycling Biomass | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent Application 20100083575 - Co-gasification Process for Hydrocarbon Solids and Biomass; 2010; ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company; Abstract: A process for the co-gasification of carbonaceous solids (coal) and biomass in which the biomass material is pyrolyzed to provide a biomass pyrolysis oil and biomass char or coke which are then mixed with the carbonaceous solid to form a slurry. This slurry is then heated if necessary to achieve a viscosity which can be processed conveniently in the gasifier. A process for forming a slurry feed for the gasification to synthesis gas of solid carbonaceous particles and solid biomass ... wherein the solid carbonaceous particles comprise coal (and0 wherein the biomass comprises biological matter selected from wood, plant matter, municipal waste, green waste, byproducts of farming or food processing waste, sewage sludge, black liquor from wood pulp, and algae".

just how many different kinds of "carbonaceous material" can be included, with Coal, in such a gasification process.): 

The method ... wherein a portion of carbonaceous material fed to said gasification reactor remains unreacted and is fed to said liquefaction reactor.

The process ... wherein the carbonaceous material comprises coal (and) wherein the carbonaceous material includes biomass comprising plant or animal matter. 

The process ... wherein said inorganic metal halide salt is selected from the group consisting of zinc chloride (ZnCl2), zinc bromide (ZnBr2), iron chloride (FeCl3), tin chloride (SnCl2), titanium chloride (TiCl2), titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), bismuth chloride (BiCl3) and mixtures thereof.

(We've many times documented the utility of Zinc, and other metal, Halides in various Coal conversion and hydrogenation, or "hydrocracking", processes and reactions; as, for one example, seen in our report of:

Shell Oil Cracks Coal with Zinc Halide | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 3,764,515 - Process for Hydrocracking Heavy Hydrocarbons; 1973; Assignee: Shell Oil Company, NY
Abstract: There is disclosed a process for hydrocracking coal ... employing a molten catalyst system, including a mineral acid that is stable at reaction conditions, and a metal halide catalyst selected from zinc chloride, bromide or iodide (and, etc). Recently metal halide catalysts have been found that are both active enough and stable enough to be employed in hydrocracking coal"). 

The process ... wherein said liquefaction reactor is at a temperature of 250 to 750 C (and) wherein said liquefaction reactor is at a pressure of 250 psi-7500 psi (and) wherein the liquefaction reactor includes an organic liquid that can be hydrogenated and dehydrogenated.

(The above "organic liquid that can be hydrogenated and dehydrogenated" would be a Hydrogen donor solvent, which can itself be derived from the Coal or other organic raw material, as seen for one example in our report of:

WVU Hydrogenates Coal Tar | Research & Development | News; which includes details of the thesis: "Hydrogenation of Naphthalene; Abhijit Bhagavatula; College of Engineering and Mineral Resources at West Virginia University; 2009; Abstract: The hydrogenation of naphthalene ... (to form) the hydrogenated product, tetralin (for use in)  the conversion of coal to refinable crude hydrocarbons, from which liquid fuels such as gasoline, diesel, kerosene, etc., can be produced";

wherein "naphthalene" is a primary Coal tar or oil which has traditionally been produced via Coal distillation in coke ovens.) 

The process ... wherein the inorganic metal halide salt comprises zinc chloride (and) further comprising, in step (a), feeding one or more of water, carbon dioxide or oxygen to said gasification reactor. 

The process ... wherein said contents of said gasification reactor that are fed into said liquefaction reactor comprises carbonaceous material, hydrogen and carbon monoxide (and) wherein a portion of carbonaceous material fed to said gasification reactor forms a char and is fed to said liquefaction reactor.

Background and Field: The present disclosure is directed at the conversion of carbonaceous materials to synthetic hydrocarbons which may be utilized as a feed stock for fuels and/or chemical manufacturing.

More specifically, the disclosure relates to the catalytically promoted water gas shift reaction and coal hydrogenation reaction which may now be carried out in a single vessel allowing for the elimination of a separate processing step for gas composition adjustment. 

On the basis of cost per unit of energy obtained by combustion, coal is generally less expensive than petroleum. Two approaches are presently employed for conversion of coal to synthetic petroleum that may then be used as feed stocks for manufacturing fuels and chemicals similar to those made from conventional petroleum. 

One principal processing approach is called "direct liquefaction" that includes: 1. gasification of part of the coal by partial combustion to produce a gaseous product containing both hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas): 2. changing the composition of the gas stream to substantially all hydrogen by reacting the carbon monoxide with water to produce both additional hydrogen and carbon dioxide with removal of the carbon dioxide; and 3. chemical reaction of the hydrogen stream thus formed with the remaining coal at a suitable combination of temperature and pressure in the presence of a catalyst and a hydrogen transfer liquid, to transform the coal to synthetic petroleum (liquefaction).

(In point of fact, the above isn't necessarily an accurate summation of all direct Coal liquefaction processes, the latest and best of which, as seen for one example in:

WVU Coal Liquefaction System | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 8,597,503 - Coal Liquefaction System; 2013; Inventors: Alfred H. Stiller and Elliot B. Kennel, Morgantown, WV; Assignee: West Virginia University; Abstract: The present disclosure relates to a coal liquefaction system for utilizing a hydrogenated vegetable oil to liquefy coal. A coal liquefaction system, comprising: a reactor for exposing a coal to a hydrogenated vegetable oil in the presence of a coal-derived solvent to form a slurry .... . The present invention relates to coal-to-liquid technology, and specifically to a system and method for liquefying coal using solvents that hydrogenate under mild conditions.  Coal liquefaction may occur by two different pathways: indirect liquefaction and direct liquefaction. The indirect method converts coal to hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and syngas by reacting coal with steam at high temperatures in an oxygen-starved combustion process. Direct liquefaction includes reaction of coal with hydrogen in a manner that coal becomes liquid. However, direct coal liquefaction has been historically carried out with hydrogen gas, which requires high temperature and pressure. In an example, direct coal liquefaction may involve temperatures in excess of 450 C and 2000 psig pressure. In an aspect, the present invention provides methods and systems for inexpensively producing an effective solvent to digest coal. Alternatively, the methods and systems may enhance the dissolution ability of heavy aromatic oils by the addition of a hydrogenated liquid. In an embodiment, the hydrogenated liquid may be partially or fully hydrogenated vegetable oil. The present invention may also provide a process that may liquefy coal without the need to hydrogenate the solvent. The coal-derived solvent may be selected from a group comprising recycled liquefied coal, coal tar distillate, and coal tar pitch. The coal may be selected from one or more of a sub-bituminous coal, lignite coal and an anthracite coal";

utilize a solvent, whether Coal-derived or not, that is loaded with Hydrogen separately supplied from outside the Coal conversion process, thus making the Water-Carbon Monoxide shift reaction, which generates Carbon Dioxide as well as Hydrogen, unnecessary. That's a realistic option since, as seen in:

USDOE Renewable Energy Extracts Hydrogen from Water | Research & Development | News; which centers on: "United States Patent 8,444,846 - Method and System for Producing Hydrogen Using Sodium Ion Separation Membranes; 2013; Assignee: Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID; A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

Government Interests/Government Rights: This invention was made under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Alberta Limited and Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC under Contract No. DE- AC07-051D14517, awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The U.S. Government has certain rights in the invention";

we're getting pretty good at producing Hydrogen on a large-scale industrial and economical basis.)

The principal processing steps in the approach called "indirect liquefaction" include: 1. gasification of all of the coal by partial combustion to produce a gaseous product containing both hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas); 2. adjusting the hydrogen content of the gas by reacting part of the carbon monoxide with water to produce both hydrogen and carbon dioxide with removal of the carbon dioxide, to produce a stream containing a preferred composition of hydrogen and carbon monoxide; and 3. reacting the hydrogen and carbon monoxide at a suitable combination of temperature and pressure in the presence of a catalyst to make paraffinic hydrocarbons (liquefaction). This reaction is widely known as the "Fischer-Tropsch" synthesis and the products provide suitable feed stocks for many fuel and chemical production processes.

Both of these conventional processes use the reaction of carbon monoxide with water, widely known as the "water gas shift reaction" or "WGSR" as a significant and separate processing step to adjust the composition of the reacting gas stream to a preferred composition. That WGSR may be summarized as follows: CO + H2O =.CO2 + H2 The water gas shift reaction noted above, which is utilized to adjust the ratio of H2 to CO in the syngas to provide an optimal ratio for downstream processing, is, as noted, typically carried-out in a separate stand-alone reactor. This then eventually provides a suitable feed for the coal liquefaction reactor. The present invention is, among other things, directed at elimination of this separate reactor for the WGSR and improvement of the overall processes economics, along with the application of such process to all types of coal and the formation of products that also include cyclic organic compounds that may be particularly preferred for selected fuels and other chemical manufacturing requirements. 

Summary; A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material comprising: (a) providing a carbonaceous material and feeding a portion to a gasification reactor and forming hydrogen and carbon monoxide; (b) feeding the gaseous products of the gasification reactor with water and additional carbonaceous material into a liquefaction reactor containing an inorganic metal halide salt wherein said gaseous products undergo both of the following: (i) a water gas shift reaction wherein the carbon monoxide and water react to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen; and (ii) a hydrogenation reaction of the carbonaceous material wherein said material is converted to a hydrocarbon. Furthermore, in step (a) one may feed one or more of water, carbon dioxide or oxygen to the gasification reactor. In addition, in step (b), one may feed the contents of the gasification reactor, including unreacted carbonaceous material, into the liquefaction reactor along with additional carbonaceous material and water. 

The present invention relates to a catalytically promoted water gas shift reaction and carbonaceous material hydrogenation reaction which may be carried out in a single vessel allowing for the elimination of a separate processing step for gas composition adjustment. The process of this invention may therefore provide advantages over both of the conventional approaches (direct liquefaction or indirect liquefaction).

More specifically, the elimination of the separate gas composition adjustment processes required by both conventional direct and indirect liquefaction methods may now reduce both the capital and operating costs for the process of this invention.

The feedstocks suitable for use herein may include a carbonaceous material which may be understood as any substrate material containing carbon suitable for conversion to a synthetic fuel.

Preferably, the feedstock herein first includes coal material from coal beds or coal seams.

The coal may include various rank coals, such as lignite or brown coal that may provide about 6800 BTU/lb, subbituminous coal that may provide about 8250 BTU/lb, bituminuous coal that may provide about 12,900 BTU/lb and anthracite coal which may provide about 13,500 BTU/lb. In addition, the feedstock herein may comprise mixtures of any one or more of the previous mentioned coal materials. 

Furthermore, the carbonaceous material substrate herein may include asphalt which may be understood as a solid or semi-solid mixture of bitumens that may be obtained from native deposits or as a petroleum by-product. As may therefore be appreciated, asphalt can provide various hydrocarbon mixtures suitable as a substrate for conversion according to the general process disclosed herein. 

Moreover, the solid carbonaceous feedstock herein may extend to include biomass which is a reference to any plant or animal matter available or developed as a renewable energy source (i.e. plant or animal matter developed for the purpose of conversion to a synthetic fuel). The carbonaceous material herein may therefore include cellulosic type material, and in particular, waste cellulosic material available from consumer recycling. Accordingly, by way of example only, the carbonaceous material herein may specifically include wood chips, algae, sugar cane fiber, nut shells, or cardboard".

-----------------------------

You know, we don't think we have anything we can add at this point.

In cold sum: 

Our own United States Government, as herein, told us, and confirmed for us, just two weeks ago, that We the People own at least a share of technology that, in one consolidated and less costly reactor, is capable of converting any and all ranks of our abundant Coal, along with seemingly any and all sorts of Carbon-containing and Carbon-recycling renewable wastes and agricultural produce into "synthetic hydrocarbons which may be utilized as a feed stock for fuels and/or chemical manufacturing"; into synthetic petroleum, in other words.

Especially in light of our ongoing indentured economic servitude to OPEC, and of our still-slow economy, that's news; news for United States Coal Country, news for the entire United States of America. 

And, somebody, somewhere, sometime soon we hope, in our media industry really needs to find the courage within themselves to shake off whatever chains of disbelief might be preventing them from doing so, and bring this news forward to us, to all of us, fully and openly, so that all of us, We the People, can benefit from it, so that we can kick OPEC off our beaches and secure a prosperous and energy self-sufficient future for our, for each and every United States citizen's, children and grandchildren.


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