United States Patent: 8871078

As we've indicated and documented from time-to-time, opportunities are beginning to emerge for our miners of Coal and those of our citizens who would prefer to live on the shores of Walden Pond in total harmony with the ephemeral sprites of nature - - i.e., replacing toilet paper with corn cobs, eating only the meat of animals who have died natural deaths, keeping warm in the winter by sleeping under piles of old Organic Gardening magazines, that sort of thing - - to begin cooperating, at least a little, sort of like the United States and the Soviet Union did during WWII, to defeat a greater threat to our health, happiness and American way of life:

OPEC.

Carbon Dioxide - - as it is emitted in only a small way, relative to the Earth's all-natural and un-taxable processes of planetary volcanism, from our economically essential use of Coal in the generation of truly abundant, truly affordable and truly reliable electric power - - is a valuable raw material resource.

 

 

As seen, for only a few examples, in our reports of:

Stack Gas" Carbon Dioxide to High-Octane Gasoline | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 8,506,910 - Process and System for Producing Liquid Fuel from Carbon Dioxide and Water; 2013; Assignee: CRI (Carbon Recycling International) EHF, Iceland; Abstract: A process and system for producing high octane fuel from carbon dioxide and water is disclosed. The feedstock for the production line is industrial carbon dioxide and water, which may be of lower quality. The end product can be high octane gasoline, high cetane diesel or other liquid hydrocarbon mixtures suitable for driving conventional combustion engines or hydrocarbons suitable for further industrial processing or commercial use. Products, such as dimethyl ether or methanol may also be withdrawn from the production line. The process is nearly emission free and reprocesses all hydrocarbons not suitable for liquid fuel to form high octane products. The heat generated by exothermic reactions in the process is fully utilized as is the heat produced in the reprocessing of hydrocarbons not suitable for liquid fuel. Claims: A system for production of liquid fuel from carbon dioxide and water using electricity, the system comprising: (a) a purification unit in fluid communication with stack gas units of industrial plants and/or power plants, said purification unit arranged and designed to separate the carbon dioxide from stack gases; (b) an electrolysis unit arranged to convert water into hydrogen and oxygen"; and:

Germany Awarded 2011 CO2 Recycling US Patent | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 7,989,507 - Production of Fuel ... Utilizing Waste Carbon Dioxide; 2011; Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft (AG), Munich, Germany; Abstract: The present invention is directed to a method for utilizing CO2 waste comprising recovering carbon dioxide from an industrial process that produces a waste stream comprising carbon dioxide in an amount greater than an amount of carbon dioxide present in starting materials for the industrial process. The method further includes producing hydrogen using a renewable energy resource and producing a hydrocarbon material utilizing the produced hydrogen and the recovered carbon dioxide. Claims: A process for utilizing CO2 waste comprising: recovering carbon dioxide from an industrial process that produces a waste stream comprising carbon dioxide in an amount greater than an amount of carbon dioxide present in starting materials for the industrial process; producing hydrogen using a renewable energy resource; and producing methane utilizing the produced hydrogen and the recovered carbon dioxide. The process ... wherein the producing hydrogen is done by electrolysis of water using electricity generated from the renewable energy resource, and wherein the renewable energy resource comprises wind or solar energy. The process ... wherein the producing hydrogen further comprises producing oxygen as a by-product and using the oxygen in a downstream process. The process ... further comprising using electricity produced from the renewable energy resource to reduce an amount of carbon dioxide to a first amount of carbon monoxide and oxygen. The process ,,, wherein at least one of the first amount or the second amount of the carbon monoxide and the produced hydrogen are converted to methanol via a catalytic process. Description and Field: The present invention relates to a method and system for producing fuel materials from waste carbon dioxide using renewable resources, and more particularly to a method and system for producing fuel materials from carbon dioxide recovered from a waste stream of an industrial process and hydrogen produced using renewable energy resources. The inventors of the present invention have developed a novel method and system for utilizing waste carbon dioxide for the production of useful fuel materials. In one aspect of the present invention, the present invention provides a novel, efficient, and economical method and system for producing useful fuel materials, i.e. methane, methanol carbon monoxide, syngas, gasoline products, and/or other fuel materials, from carbon dioxide recovered from carbon dioxide-containing waste streams via hydrogen produced by renewable energy resources";

it is becoming clear that we can recover Carbon Dioxide from whatever source most convenient to us, and, then, by combining that Carbon Dioxide with elemental, molecular Hydrogen in efficient catalytic processes, we can synthesize any and all forms of both liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, i.e.: "high octane gasoline, high cetane diesel", fuel alcohol "methanol" and substitute natural gas "methane". 

And, we have to say this:

We barrage our readers typically with United States Patent and Trademark Office publications, as we are herein, since the USPTO is compelled by law to make patents and patent applications publicly accessible in a timely fashion. We also utilize reports of research funded by the United States Government or conducted by the Government itself, since those reports are publicly owned by all United States citizens and must, except where security concerns might apply, also be made accessible. The problem with those reports being that there is usually a significant lag time between when the reports are officially published and when they're made accessible on the inter net, where we are able to access them.

It is difficult for us to utilize and present the more basic reports of developments made in academic and professional journals, since those journals and the researchers who publish in them, are pursuing one sort or another of commercial interest, whether through publishing or from profits devolving from proprietary information and/or innovation resulting from the research. Consequently, those basic reports must typically be purchased, which our poverty-stricken little group is unable to do, and there are, in any case, restrictions on their broader distribution.

That is changing. A very major educational and research institution in the United States of America, perhaps in concert with a European corporate partner, has recently started "opening their books", as it were, on advanced developments related to the productive consumption and utilization of Carbon Dioxide. Their stated goal is to demonstrate the practical reality of using "renewable energy" to consume Carbon Dioxide in the manufacture of "fuels and chemicals".

But, we'll get to that. For now, we'll continue presenting the facts in piecemeal fashion, and trying to demonstrate how they fit together in a coherent picture of reality, a reality that has so far been denied to all of us by those whom we have been led to, and should have been able to, trust to tell and bring us the truth.

As noted in the above citations of our reports concerning "United States Patent 8,506,910 - Process and System for Producing Liquid Fuel from Carbon Dioxide and Water" and "United States Patent 7,989,507 - Production of Fuel ... Utilizing Waste Carbon Dioxide", we can, actually, convert Carbon Dioxide quite directly into any and all forms of both liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels.

Such direct and efficient utilization of Carbon Dioxide is made possible by two things: appropriate catalysts which are specific to the desired hydrocarbon products, and, elemental, molecular Hydrogen.

And, as seen in our report of:

North Carolina Sunshine Extracts Hydrogen from H2O for USDOE | Research & Development | News; concerning: "US Patent 8,524,903 - Ruthenium or Osmium Complexes and Their Uses as Catalysts for Water Oxidation; Date: September 3, 2013; Inventors: Javier Jesus Concepcion Corbea, et. al., North Carolina; Assignee: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Abstract: The present invention provides ruthenium or osmium complexes and their uses as a catalyst for catalytic water oxidation. Another aspect of the invention provides an electrode and photo-electrochemical cells for electrolysis of water molecules. Government Interests: This invention was made, in-part, with United States government support under grants numbered DE-FG02-06ER15788 and DE-SC0001011 from the Department of Energy. The U.S. Government has certain rights to this invention. Claims: A complex having the structure of formula (specified and defined, and containing): ruthenium (Ru) or osmium (Os) ... . A photoelectrolytic device comprising a catalyst comprising a complex (as defined and described, and) wherein the complex has a structure (as defined, and) further comprising a proton acceptor base (as chemically defined). Background and Field: The present invention generally relates to catalysts for water oxidation. (The) electrolysis of water is an energy intensive process, which is very expensive. On the other hand, photolysis, the splitting of water by light, presents an attractive alternative method of obtaining hydrogen. Additionally, light driven reduction of carbon dioxide by water to provide hydrocarbons or methanol may be another promising alternative to alternate energy sources. For both types of reactions, coupled water oxidation to oxygen is required. Therefore, there is a need in the industry for an efficient catalyst for the electrolysis or photo electrolysis of water to obtain hydrogen or water reduction of carbon dioxide to obtain affordable and sustainable alternative source of energy";

the United States Department of Energy hired the University of North Carolina to develop catalysts that would enable the efficient extraction, in a process powered by freely-available sunlight, of Hydrogen from the abundant water, H2O, molecule, and the concurrent chemical reduction, with the Hydrogen, of Carbon Dioxide, as recovered from whatever source, and the synthesis of "hydrocarbons or" fuel alcohol "methanol".

And, herein we see that the USDOE/UNC "photo electrolysis of water" technology disclosed by "United States Patent 8,524,903" was, a shade more than one year after it's issuance, extended and improved upon, through demonstration of the fact, that, not only can sunlight power the extraction of Hydrogen from H2O, it can, as well, drive the conversion of that Hydrogen, combined with Carbon Dioxide, into hydrocarbons and alcohols, with Oxygen produced as a byproduct.

As seen in excerpts from the initial link in this dispatch to the indentically-titled:

"US Patent 8,871,078 - Ruthenium or Osmium Complexes and their Uses as Catalysts for Water Oxidation

Ruthenium or osmium complexes and their uses as catalysts for water oxidation - The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Date: October 28, 2014

Inventors: Javier Jesus Concepcion Corbea, et. al., NY, NC and CA

Assignee: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC

Abstract: The present invention provides ruthenium or osmium complexes and their uses as a catalyst for catalytic water oxidation. Another aspect of the invention provides an electrode and photo-electrochemical cells for electrolysis of water molecules.

("US Patent 8,524,903 - Ruthenium or Osmium Complexes and Their Uses as Catalysts for Water Oxidation; Date: September 3, 2013", as in our earlier report, is cited at this point in the Disclosure as precedent and related art. - JtM)

Government Interests: This invention was made, in-part, with United States government support under grants numbered DE-FG02-06ER15788 and DE-SC 0001011 from the Department of Energy. The U.S. Government has certain rights to this invention.

Claims: A method of generating hydrogen (H2) and/or oxygen (O2) gases, the method comprising: providing a catalyst comprising a complex according to formula (I - as specified, and containing) ruthenium (Ru) or osmium (Os) ... and adding the catalyst to an electrolytic media under a condition effective to generate hydrogen and/or oxygen.

The method ...  further comprising exposing the electrolytic media that contains the catalyst to light radiation to generate hydrogen and/or oxygen gases. 

A method of generating methanol, hydrocarbons and/or oxygen (O2) gases comprising: providing (a) a catalyst comprising a complex according to formula (I) ... and (b) a supporting substrate, adding the catalyst to an electrolytic media under a condition effective to generate methanol, hydrocarbons and/or oxygen (O2) (and) further comprising exposing the electrolytic media that contains the catalyst to light radiation to generate methanol, hydrocarbons and/or oxygen (O2). 

Background and Field: The present invention generally relates to catalysts for water oxidation.

Hydrogen ... can be obtained by electrolysis of water, which is environmentally friendly and efficient. However, the electrolysis of water is an energy intensive process, which is very expensive. On the other hand, photolysis, the splitting of water by light, presents an attractive alternative method of obtaining hydrogen.

Additionally, light driven reduction of carbon dioxide by water to provide hydrocarbons or methanol may be another promising alternative to alternate energy sources.

For both types of reactions, coupled water oxidation to oxygen is required. In order to facilitate the photolysis of water by light in either type of reaction, a catalyst is required for the reaction. However, there are very few catalysts found to be efficient and cost effective to carry out this reaction.

Therefore, there is a need in the industry for an efficient catalyst for the electrolysis or photoelectrolysis of water to obtain hydrogen or water reduction of carbon dioxide to obtain affordable and sustainable alternative source of energy.

Summary: According to (one) aspect of the invention, the complexes described ... may be used as a catalyst for catalytic water oxidation (and, a) further aspect of the invention provides an electrode comprising a complex descried herein.

Another aspect of the present invention provides photo-electrochemical cells comprising a catalyst described herein (and further) provides photoelectrolytic devices comprising a catalyst described herein and a supporting substrate on which said catalyst is supported.

A further aspect of the invention describes methods of generating hydrogen (H2) and/or oxygen (O2) gases (and additionally) describes methods of generating methanol, hydrocarbons and/or oxygen (O2). The method comprises: providing a catalyst described herein and adding the catalyst to an electrolytic media under a condition effective to generate methanol, hydrocarbons and/or oxygen (O2).

In one embodiment, the method comprises providing a catalyst described herein, and adding the catalyst to an electrolytic media under a condition effective to generate hydrogen and/or oxygen. In one embodiment, the methods further comprise exposing the reaction media, which contains the catalyst to light radiation to generate hydrogen and/or oxygen gases.

In another embodiment, the method comprises exposing the photo-electrochemical cell described herein to light radiation to generate hydrogen and oxygen gases without the requirement of applying an external electrical potential. In one embodiment, the method further comprises adding at least one proton acceptor base described above.

Another aspect of the present invention provides methods of generating hydrocarbons, methanol and/or oxygen (O2) gases by photo-electrolyzing water.

The method comprises providing a catalyst described herein and adding the catalyst to a electrolytic media under an effective condition to generate methanol/hydrocarbons and/or oxygen (O2). In one embodiment, the method further comprises exposing the reaction media which contain the catalyst to light radiation to generate methanol, hydrocarbons and/or oxygen (O2).

In another embodiment, the method comprises exposing the photo-electrochemical cell described herein to light radiation without the requirement of applying an external electrical potential'.

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The University of North Carolina doesn't, in the course of the full Disclosure, emphasize that this is, in fact, not just an "efficient catalyst for the electrolysis or photoelectrolysis of water to obtain hydrogen", but is also a method for the "water reduction of carbon dioxide to obtain affordable and sustainable alternative source of energy", by generating, in a process powered only by "light radiation without the requirement of applying an external electrical potential", "hydrocarbons" and "methanol" from Water and Carbon Dioxide.

And, UNC's accomplishment herein was made "with United States government support under grants numbered DE-FG02-06ER15788 and DE-SC 0001011 from the Department of Energy"; which "support", we must suppose, came under the umbrella of the USDOE's program to develop "Artificial Photosynthesis" technologies for the production of hydrocarbon fuels using H2O and Carbon Dioxide as raw materials:

Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis; "The Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) is the nation’s largest research program dedicated to the development of an artificial solar-fuel generation technology. Established in 2010 as a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Innovation Hub, JCAP aims to find a cost-effective method to produce fuels using only sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide as inputs".

The "JCAP" program is, as we've seen in other reports, such as: 

USDOE and California CO2 Utilization Artificial Photosynthesis | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 8,613,900 - Nanostructured Transition Metal Oxides Useful for Water Oxidation Catalysis; December 24, 2013; Inventors: Heinz Frei and Feng Jiao, CA and DE; Assignee: The Regents of the University of California; Abstract: The present invention provides for a composition comprising a nanostructured transition metal oxide capable of oxidizing two H2O molecules to obtain four protons. In some embodiments of the invention, the composition further comprises a porous matrix wherein the nanocluster of the transition metal oxide is embedded on and/or in the porous matrix. Government Interests: The invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention";

one which is bearing fruit. And we are, in other words, successfully developing technology all across our nation wherein the power of simple sunlight can be harnessed to drive the conversion of Carbon Dioxide, as we might recover from the stack gases of our economically essential Coal-fired power generation plants into anything, quite literally anything, we now squander our present and future prosperity and security to continue buying from OPEC.

Far past time we were informed that we, as a nation, have some options, ain't it? Options that could free us all from economic enslavement to OPEC; create countless new jobs; and, usher in a new era of prosperity and genuine freedom for United States Coal Country and the entire United States of America.


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