United States Patent: 8992738

Carbon Dioxide, as harvested from whatever convenient source, can be used and consumed as the key raw material in processes powered by nothing more than simple sunlight - - processes which might be thought of as "artificial photosynthesis" and which require no other raw material but Water - - and be converted in those processes into various hydrocarbons, including and perhaps especially, substitute, fracking-free natural gas Methane.

 

We've documented that to be true so many times, as in for a few examples our reports of:

Panasonic Solar Energy Converts More CO2 into Methane | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 8,617,375 - Method for Reducing Carbon Dioxide; 2013; Inventors: Yugi Zenitani, Masahiro Deguchi, Satoshi Yotsuhashi, Reiko Taniguchi, Japan; Assignee: Panasonic Corporation, Osaka; Abstract: The method for reducing carbon dioxide of the present invention includes a step (a) and a step (b) as follows. A step (a) of preparing an electrochemical cell. The electrochemical cell comprises a working electrode, a counter electrode and a vessel. The vessel stores an electrolytic solution. The working electrode contains boron carbide. The electrolytic solution contains carbon dioxide. The working electrode and the counter electrode are in contact with the electrolytic solution. A step (b) of applying a negative voltage and a positive voltage to the working electrode and the counter electrode, respectively, to reduce the carbon dioxide. (It) is an object of the present invention to provide a method for reducing carbon dioxide using a highly-durable catalyst that is capable of reducing CO2 at an overvoltage equal to or lower than overvoltages required for conventional catalysts to produce highly useful substances (such as formic acid (HCOOH), methane (CH4), ethylene (C2H4), and ethane (C2H6)). (Boron Carbide) used as a catalyst in reducing CO2 causes the reducing reaction of CO2 only with an external energy from DC power supply at ordinary temperature. Moreover, the method for reducing CO2 of the present invention can be applied to methods using a solar cell as an external power supply. The catalyst for reducing CO2 can be applied, by combination with a photocatalyst, to catalysts that can be used with solar energy. 
The method for reducing CO2 using B4C (Boron Carbide) is very simple because it can be carried out by blowing CO2 gas into an electrolytic solution or by forming a three-phase boundary with a gas diffusion electrode. Thus, it can be said that the method for reducing CO2 using B4C is a very promising technique as an energy-saving measure for CO2 in places where large-scale equipment cannot be installed in houses and communities. The method for reducing CO2 of the present invention can be applied to methods using a solar cell as an external power supply. The catalyst for reducing CO2 can be applied, by combination with a photocatalyst, to catalysts which can be used with solar energy"; and: 

May 15, 2014, "Real World" CO2-to-Methane Photosynthesis | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent Application 20140131192 - Ionic Liquid Functionalized Reduced Graphite Oxide / TiO2 Nanocomposite for Conversion of CO2 to CH4 (Methane); 2014; Inventors: Jean Andino and Tingling Gao, Arizona; (Arizona State University); Abstract: An ionic liquid functionalized reduced graphite oxide (IL-RGO)/TiO2 (titanium oxide) nanocomposite was synthesized and used to reduce CO2 to a hydrocarbon in the presence of H2O vapor. Government Interests: The invention was made with government support under 1253443 awarded by the National Science Foundation. The United States government has certain rights in the invention"; and:

Korea Improves CO2 to Methane Artificial Photosynthesis | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 8,716,171 - Method of Manufacturing a Porous Gallium (III) Oxide Photocatalyst for Preparation of Hydrocarbons; 2014; Inventors: Jeung-Ku Kang, et. al., Korea; Assignee: Korea Advanced Instititute of Science and Technology, Daejon, KR; Abstract: The present invention relates to preparation of porous gallium (III) oxide [Ga2O3] photocatalyst for production of hydrocarbons a porous gallium oxide photocatalyst for production of hydrocarbons, manufactured by the foregoing method, and a process of producing hydrocarbons using the porous gallium oxide photocatalyst for production of hydrocarbons, manufactured by the foregoing method. ... A porous gallium (III) oxide photocatalyst for production of hydrocarbons ... . The present invention also relates to a porous gallium oxide photocatalyst for production of hydrocarbons, manufactured by the foregoing method, and a process of producing hydrocarbons using the porous gallium oxide photoctalyst for production of hydrocarbons, manufactured by the foregoing method. 
The hydrocarbons described above may include hydrocarbons having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, preferably, aliphatic hydrocarbons having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, and more preferably, methane. 
Artificial photo-synthesis technologies that use a photocatalyst to produce useful fuel from carbon dioxide and/or conversion of carbon dioxide to the same are now a global issue. Such a method of preparing a useful fuel using carbon dioxide and/or converting carbon dioxide to the same substantially utilizes only water and solar light, therefore, may be the most eco-friendly and sustainable technique. The fuel produced by the foregoing method may include hydrocarbons having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, preferably, aliphatic hydrocarbons having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, and more preferably, methane";

that it might becoming seen as tediously redundant. But, apparently, the facts demand repetition until the truth finally sinks in.

Another of our reports documenting CO2-to-Methane photosynthetic technology is:

New York City CO2 to Methane via Artificial Photosynthesis | Research & Development | News; concerning: 

"US Patent Application 20120208903 - Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methane Using Visible Light; Date: August, 2012; Inventor: Harry D. Gafney, NY; Assignee: Research Foundation of City University of New York, NYC; Abstract: The invention relates to a method for converting carbon dioxide to methane. The method comprises exposing carbon dioxide adsorbed on a nanoporous silicate matrix to light in the presence of a source of carbon dioxide and a source of hydrogen for a time and under conditions sufficient to convert carbon dioxide to methane".

And, herein we learn, that, just yesterday, impartial  technical experts in the employ of our United States Government agreed and confirmed that the City University of New York had, indeed, developed a process wherein nothing but a portion of the solar spectrum can drive the conversion of Carbon Dioxide, in combination with H2O, into substitute natural gas Methane.

Comment follows excerpts from the initial link in this dispatch to:

"United States Patent 8,992,738 - Method for Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methane Using Visible and Near Infra-Red Light

Method for conversion of carbon dioxide to methane using visible and near infra-red light - Research Foundation of the City Un

March 31, 2015

Inventor: Harry D. Gafney, NY

Assignee: Research Foundation of the City University of New York, NYC

Abstract: The invention relates to a method for converting carbon dioxide to methane. The method comprises exposing carbon dioxide adsorbed on a nanoporous silicate matrix to light in the presence of a source of carbon dioxide and a source of hydrogen for a time and under conditions sufficient to convert carbon dioxide to methane. The matrix contains at least one photochromic metal oxide entity, and contains a C1 impurity site. The light has a wavelength of about 437 nm to about 1200 nm.

(The above "wavelength" would comprise "Visible and Near Infra-Red Light". As seen in our report of:

Japan Photosynthesizes More Methane from CO2 | Research & Development | News; concerning: "United States Patent 8,696,883 - Method for Reducing Carbon Dioxide; 2014; Inventors: Satoshi Yotsuhashi, Masahiro Deguchi, Yuka Yamada, Japan; Assignee: Panasonic Corporation, Osaka; Abstract: The present subject matter provides a method for reducing carbon dioxide with the use of a device for reducing carbon dioxide. The device includes a cathode chamber, an anode chamber and a solid electrolyte membrane. The cathode chamber includes a working electrode which includes a metal or a metal compound. The anode chamber includes a counter electrode which includes a region formed of a nitride semiconductor. First and second electrolytic solutions are held in the cathode and anode chamber, respectively. The working electrode and the counter electrode are in contact with the first and second electrolytic solution, respectively. The solid electrolyte membrane is interposed between the cathode and anode chambers. The first electrolyte solution contains the carbon dioxide. An electric source is not interposed electrically between the working electrode and the counter electrode.Claims: A method for reducing carbon dioxide with use of a device for reducing carbon dioxide, the method comprising: a step (a) of preparing the device for reducing carbon dioxide, the device comprising: a cathode chamber; an anode chamber; and a solid electrolyte membrane; wherein: the cathode chamber comprises a working electrode, the working electrode comprises a metal or a metal compound, the anode chamber comprises a counter electrode, the counter electrode comprises a region formed of a nitride semiconductor on the surface thereof, a first electrolytic solution is held in the cathode chamber, a second electrolytic solution is held in the anode chamber, the working electrode is in contact with the first electrolytic solution, the counter electrode is in contact with the second electrolytic solution, the solid electrolyte membrane is interposed between the cathode chamber and the anode chamber, the first electrolyte solution contains the carbon dioxide, the working electrode is connected to the counter electrode, and an electric source is not interposed electrically between the working electrode and the counter electrode; a step (b) of irradiating the region with a light having a wavelength of 250 nanometers to 400 nanometers to reduce the carbon dioxide contained in the first electrolyte solution, wherein the working electrode is not irradiated with the light (and) wherein ... the device is left at a room temperature and under atmospheric pressure. The method ... wherein: a metal wire is provided on the surface of the region, and not only the region but also the metal wire are irradiated with the light. The method ... wherein in the step (b), at least one of formic acid, carbon monoxide and methane is obtained";

the visible to the Ultra-Violet range of the spectrum can also be used to drive the conversion of Carbon Dioxide and Water into products such as "methane". In other words, different catalysts can enable the use of the full solar spectrum to power the artificial photosynthesis of hydrocarbons, like Methane, from CO2.)

Claims: A method for converting carbon dioxide to methane, the method comprising exposing carbon dioxide adsorbed on a nanoporous silicate matrix to light in the presence of a source of carbon dioxide and a source of hydrogen for a time and under conditions sufficient to convert carbon dioxide to methane; wherein the matrix contains at least one photochromic metal oxide entity, and contains a C1 impurity site; and wherein the light has a wavelength of about 437 nm to about 1200 nm.

The method ... wherein the photochromic metal oxide entity is a photochromic transition metal oxide, a photochromic bronze, or mixtures thereof (and) wherein the photochromic transition metal oxide has the general formula of MxOy, wherein M is ... titanium, tungsten, molybdenum, iron, vanadium, niobium, zinc, or mixtures thereof.

The method ... wherein the photochromic transition metal oxide is tungsten oxide, ranging in various stoichiometric forms (as specified, with) molybdenum oxide, (and/or) iron oxide (and/or) titanium oxide (and/or) vanadium oxide (and/or) niobium oxide ... or mixtures thereof.

The method ... wherein the photochromic transition metal oxide is tungsten oxide ... or molybdenum oxide (and) wherein the photochromic bronze has the general formula of MxOy.+-.1A2, wherein M is a transition metal present as a mixture of different oxidation states ... and wherein A is Hydrogen, Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Cesium or Francium ... and wherein the M of the photochromic bronze is titanium, tungsten, molybdenum, iron, vanadium, niobium, zinc, or mixtures thereof. 

Background and Field: The present invention generally relates to a method for conversion of carbon dioxide to methane through a photocatalytic process. The method uses visible and near infra-red light as a source of energy. This technology increases energy output and decreases greenhouse gas emissions by being able to use solar energy to convert carbon dioxide to methane.

A catalytic system utilizing ultraviolet light to recycle CO2 to methane increases energy production and reduces greenhouse gas emission.

Reduction of CO2 to CH4, formally an eight-electron process, is known to occur thermally and photochemically with ultraviolet light on silica surfaces ... .

The photochemical conversion is photocatalytic, occurs at room temperature and catalytically converts atmospheric CO2 to CH4 with co-adsorbed water providing hydrogen ... .

Summary and Description: In one embodiment, the invention relates to a method for converting carbon dioxide to methane. The method comprises exposing carbon dioxide adsorbed on a nanoporous silicate matrix to light in the presence of a source of carbon dioxide and a source of hydrogen for a time and under conditions sufficient to convert carbon dioxide to methane.

The photocatalyst can be a photochromic metal oxide entity, a bimetallic coordination complex, or mixtures thereof. A photochromic metal oxide entity can be a photochromic transition metal oxide or bronze.

The present invention relates to methods of converting carbon dioxide to methane. The methods comprise exposing carbon dioxide adsorbed on a nanoporous silicate matrix to light in the presence of a source of carbon dioxide and a source of hydrogen for a time and under conditions sufficient to convert carbon dioxide to methane".

------------------------------------ 

And, again, the "source of hydrogen" is plain old Water, and the "light" is the Visible to Infra-Red portion of the solar spectrum.

In combination with the specified "photocatalyst"s, the descriptions of which in the full Disclosure are much more detailed and specific than our necessarily-abbreviated excerpts might make them seem, that's all that's needed to convert Carbon Dioxide, as harvested from whatever handy source, into substitute, or synthetic, fracking-free natural gas Methane.

Quite literally around the world, as confirmed by our United States Government via their issuance, just yesterday, of our subject herein,  "United States Patent 8,992,738 - Method for Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methane Using Visible and Near Infra-Red Light", it is known that simple sunlight can convert Carbon Dioxide, in combination with Water, into synthetic natural gas Methane.

About time that information landed home in United States Coal Country, where entire industries and United States citizens' livelihoods - - and common folks' electric bills - - are being threatened by duplicitous revenue schemes like Cap and Trade taxation, isn't it?


West Virginia Coal Association - PO Box 3923 - Charleston, WV 25339 | 304-342-4153 | website developed by brickswithoutstraw