In this case, the "C" doesn't stand for Coal, but, for Crap.
Hog Crap, specifically, as herein; although the male Bovine variety might be more appropriate, given the obfuscation and misdirection that has been unpleasantly showered on the very real technology and proven science of converting Coal into more versatile hydrocarbons.
We find this submission encouraging, though, since it does confirm, as we have been documenting, that processes for converting Coal into more versatile hydrocarbons can be applied, as well, to other, renewable and Carbon-recycling, resources.
Trusting that you recall our more recent dispatches concerning US Government scientist Herbert Appell, at the Pittsburgh outpost of the US Bureau of Mines, and his and his colleague's, Irving Wender's, dissertation on "The Hydrogenation of Coal with Carbon Monoxide and Water"; and, Appell's subsequent United States Patent, Number 3,733,255, for the "Conversion of ... Sewage Sludge ... to Heavy Oil", with rights assigned to the US Government, wherein it was disclosed that Appell's and Wender's earlier-defined process of hydrogenating Coal could be applied to carbonaceous wastes, we don't expect it will surprise you to learn that Coal conversion technology based on Carbon Monoxide and Water can be applied to other, equally impolite, sources of recyclable Carbon.
Herein, via the enclosed link and attached document, we see that the University of Illinois applied Appell's Carbon Monoxide-based CoalTL technology, with success, to the somewhat unpleasant Carbon-recycling resource of excess pig poop.
Well, we guess that any pig poop might be thought of as being excess; but, nevertheless, summary comment follows excerpts from:
"Thermochemical Conversion ... of Swine Manure
B.J. He, et. al., University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Copyright July, 2000; American Society of Agricultural Engineers
Abstract: A thermochemical conversion reactor was developed to process swine manure for waste reduction and energy production. Carbon monoxide was employed as the reductive agent. ... The retention time for achieving high oil yields and quality was highly dependent upon operating temperature levels.
Liquefaction (has been) historically linked to hydrogenation ... of coal.
Carbon monoxide (has been) employed as a reductive reagent to ... convert the carbonaceous materials to liquefied products (and to) increase the product yield and the oil quality. (Appell, et. al., 1980)
Conclusions: The operating temperature is (a) key parameter for the TCC process in terms of oil product yields and benzene solubles.
References: Appell, H.R., et. al., Bureau of Mines, US Department of Interior"
In sum: A process for converting Coal into hydrocarbon fuels can be applied to virtually any carbonaceous, Carbon-recycling resource; even down to and including pig manure.
Carbon Monoxide is key to this Illinois technology for converting excrement into "benzene"-soluble products and "oil", as it is in Appell's USBM, US-patented process for hydrogenating and liquefying Coal.
And, finally: We can make all of the Carbon Monoxide we might ever need, to profit from all the poop in all the sty's and stables throughout the country, and to recycle all of that Carbon, simply by blowing reclaimed Carbon Dioxide through red-hot Coal.
It seems inappropriate at this point to suggest all of that as food for thought.

West Virginia Coal Association - PO Box 3923 - Charleston, WV 25339 | 304-342-4153 | website developed by brickswithoutstraw