United States Patent: 4399234

 

Over the course of the past few years, we've made numerous reports documenting the rather extensive technology, directed toward the conversion of Coal into petroleum product substitutes, such as Gasoline and Diesel fuel, that had been steadily developed over the course of multiple decades by Pittsburgh, PA's own Gulf Oil Corporation.

 

An early example would include:

 

Pittsburgh Gulf Oil 1953 CoalTL | Research & Development; concerning: "US Patent 2,654,675 - Process for Preparing Liquid Hydrocarbons from Coal; 1953; Assignee: Gulf Research and Development Company, Pittsburgh; This invention involves an improved combination of steps for preparing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from coal".

We had also documented the somewhat concurrent development of related Coal conversion technologies by the former Standard Oil of California, Socal, i.e., Chevron, as, for example, seen in:

 

Chevron Liquefies Coal | Research & Development; concerning: "US Patent 3,518,182 - Conversion of Coal to Liquid Products; 1970; Assignee: Chevron Research Company, San Francisco; This disclosure relates to a process for converting coal primarily to motor fuels".

 

And, we have speculated once or twice that such coincident interest in Coal conversion technology might have been one motivating factor in in the 1985 merger of the two companies, with both then re-branding as, simply, Chevron.

 

Herein, we document that a seemingly-intense effort was underway at Gulf and Chevron, immediately before, during, and after their merger, with some of Gulf's Pittsburgh-area Coal conversion scientists, seemingly, even moving to Chevron's central labs in California, to develop an entire suite of Coal liquefaction technologies that would, if implemented, have enabled us long ago to have turned away from OPEC, and to have thus stemmed the hemorrhage of our national wealth.

 

We include in this report a selection of ten United States Patents issued to Gulf Oil, and subsequently to Chevron, in the years immediately before and immediately after their merger. We note and acknowledge that we might have separately made previous report on one or two of them, and we apologize for any redundancy.

 

But, our selection herein is only a sample of the many examples that are available. And, we present them as we do to establish that a thorough, extensive and complete body of knowledge has, unbeknownst to the majority of us resident in US Coal Country, been established on a virtually coast-to-coast basis; a body of knowledge that would, if anyone were motivated enough to expose it to the light and make certain it was publicly implemented, allow us to begin making anything we now import from unstable and dangerous OPEC regions, with the attendant draining of our national treasure, out of our abundant Coal.

 

Comment follows necessarily-brief excerpts from the initial link, above, and nine additional links, and excerpts:

 

"United States Patent 4,399,234 - Preparing Gasoline Range Hydrocarbons from Synthesis Gas

 

August, 1983

 

Inventors: Harold Beuther, et. al., PA

 

Assignee: Gulf Research and Development Company, Pittsburgh

 

Abstract: Synthesis gas is converted to a gasoline boiling range product high in branched chain paraffins and olefins utilizing a catalyst consisting essentially of silicalite and cobalt ... .

 

Claims: A process for the conversion of synthesis gas consisting essentially of CO and hydrogen to a product high in branched chain paraffins and olefins in the gasoline boiling range.

 

Background: The growing importance of alternative energy sources has brought a renewed interest in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis as one of the more attractive direct and environmentally acceptable paths to high quality transportation fuels.

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United States Patent: 4413064 - Synthesis Gas Conversion for Preparation of Diesel Fuel

 

Date: November, 1983

 

Inventors: Harold Beuther, et. al., PA

 

Assignee: Gulf Research and Development Company, Pittsburgh

 

Abstract: A catalyst useful in the conversion of synthesis gas to diesel fuel ... .

 

Claims: A process for the conversion of synthesis gas to a product high in straight chain paraffins in the diesel fuel boiling range.

 

Background: The growing importance of alternative energy sources has brought a renewed interest in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis as one of the more attractive direct and environmentally acceptable paths to high quality transportation fuels. The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis involves the production of hydrocarbons of the catalyzed reaction of CO and hydrogen. Commercial plants have operated in Germany, South Africa and other parts of the world.

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United States Patent: 4492774 - Method for Converting Synthesis Gas

 

Date: January, 1985

 

Inventors: Charles Kibby, et. al., PA

 

Assignee: Gulf Research and Development Company, Pittsburgh

 

Abstract: A process for converting synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbons ... .

 

Claims: A method for converting synthesis gas to a product predominating in liquid hydrocarbons ... .

 

Description: Synthesis gas comprising a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in appropriate proportions can be converted to liquid hydrocarbons ... . Commercial plants have operated in Germany, South Africa and in other countries for the production of liquid fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas.

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United States Patent: 4493905 - Synthesis Gas Conversion ... for Preparation of Diesel Fuel

 

Date: January, 1985

 

Inventor: Harold Beuther, et. al., PA

 

Assignee: Gulf Research and Development Company, Pittsburgh

 

Abstract: A catalyst useful in the conversion of synthesis gas to diesel fuel ... .

 

Claims:  A process for the preparation of a catalyst useful in the fluidized bed conversion of synthesis gas.

 

Summary: It has now been found in accordance with the present invention, that a highly active catalyst for the conversion of synthesis gas consisting essentially of CO and hydrogen to a product high in straight chain paraffins in the diesel fuel boiling range ... can be produced.

 

The source of the CO and hydrogen to be used in the charge stocks for this invention is not critical and can be obtained, for example, by the oxidation of coal.

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United States Patent: 4497903 - Cobalt-Substituted Aluminosilicate for Synthesis Gas Conversion

 

Date: February, 1985

 

Inventors: Charles Kibby, et. al., PA

 

Assignee: Gulf Research and Development Company, Pittsburgh

 

Abstract: Synthesis gas conversion catalyst ... containing cobalt ... used in the production of liquid hydrocarbons from synthesis gas.

 

Description and Background: Synthesis gas comprising a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in appropriate proportions can be converted to liquid hydrocarbons in the presence of a suitable catalyst by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Commercial plants have operated in Germany, South Africa and in other countries for the production of liquid fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas.

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United States Patent: 4585798 - Synthesis Gas Conversion Using ... Cobalt Catalyst

 

Date: April, 1986

 

Inventors: Harold Beuther, et. al., FL and PA

 

Assignee: Gulf Research and Development Company, Pittsburgh

 

Abstract: Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to a liquid hydrocarbon by contacting the synthesis gas under conversion conditions with a supported cobalt-ruthenium catalyst.

 

Claims: A process for the conversion of synthesis gas to a product containing liquid hydrocarbons.

 

Background and Field: The present invention relates to a process for the conversion of synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbons in the presence of a catalyst containing cobalt and ruthenium ... . More particularly, this invention relates to the conversion of synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbons using a cobalt-ruthenium catalyst containing very low levels of ruthenium as compared to cobalt.

The growing importance of alternative energy sources has brought a renewed interest in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis as one of the more attractive direct and environmentally acceptable paths to high quality transportation fuels.

 

Summary: The charge stock used in the process of this invention is a mixture of CO and hydrogen. Any suitable source of the CO and hydrogen can be used. The charge stock can be obtained, for example, by the oxidation of coal or other forms of carbon.

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United States Patent: 4605676 - Synthesis Gas Conversion Using Activated Catalyst

 

Date: April, 1986

 

Inventors: Thaddeus Kobylinski, et. al., PA

 

Assignee: Chevron Research Company, San Francisco, CA

 

Abstract: Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to a liquid hydrocarbon.

 

Claims: A process for the conversion of synthesis gas to a product containing liquid hydrocarbons with an activated, supported catalyst prepared by (the specified) process.

 

Background and Field: The present invention relates to a process for the conversion of synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbons.

 

The growing importance of alternative energy sources has brought a renewed interest in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis as one of the more attractive direct and environmentally acceptable paths to high quality transportation fuels.

 

Summary: It has now been found in accordance with the present invention, that synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide can be selectively converted under synthesis gas conversion conditions to liquid hydrocarbons with a catalyst prepared by subjecting a supported cobalt or nickel catalyst to (the specified) activation procedure.

 

The charge stock used in the process of this invention is a mixture of CO and hydrogen (as can) be obtained, for example, by the oxidation of coal ... .

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United States Patent: 4605679 - Cobalt Catalyst and Synthesis Gas Conversion Using Same

 

Date: August, 1986

 

Inventors: Thaddeus Kobylinski, et. al, PA

 

Assignee: Chevron Research Company, CA

 

Abstract: Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to a liquid hydrocarbon.

 

Claims: A process for the conversion of synthesis gas to a product containing liquid hydrocarbons with an, activated, supported catalyst prepared by the steps (specified herein).

 

Field:The present invention relates to a process for the conversion of synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbons.

 

The charge stock used in the process of this invention ... can be obtained ... by the oxidation of coal.

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United States Patent: 4605680 - Conversion of Synthesis Gas to Diesel Fuel and Gasoline

 

Date: August, 1986

 

Inventors: Harold Beuther, et. al., PA

 

Assignee: Chevron Research Company, CA

 

Abstract: Synthesis gas is converted to diesel fuel and a high octane gasoline in two stages.

 

Summary: The process of the present invention enables the production of both high cetane diesel fuel and high octane gasoline in amounts depending upon the conditions and particular catalysts utilized. In this way, the respective amounts of diesel fuel and gasoline can be varied to meet consumer demands.

 

The charge stock used in this invention ... can be obtained ... by the oxidation of coal.

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United States Patent: 4613624 - Conversion of Synthesis Gas to Diesel Fuel

 

Date: September, 1986

 

Inventors: Harold Beuther, et. al., PA

 

Assignee: Chevron Research Company, CA

 

Abstract: Synthesis gas is converted to straight chain paraffins boiling in the diesel fuel boiling range utilizing a catalyst (as specified).

 

Claims: A process for the conversion of synthesis gas consisting essentially of CO and hydrogen to a product high in straight chain paraffins in the diesel fuel boiling range.

 

Background and Field: This invention relates to a process for the synthesis of diesel fuel from CO and hydrogen using a cobalt-containing catalyst.

 

The growing importance of alternative energy sources has brought a renewed interest in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis as one of the more attractive direct and environmentally acceptable paths to high quality transportation fuels. The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis involves the production of hydrocarbons by the catalyzed reaction of CO and hydrogen.

 

The CO and hydrogen ... can be obtained ... by the oxidation of coal."

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First, we have been alerted that some links we transmit in our dispatches sometimes don't function properly, or, when reproduced and published, appear illegible. Should that prove the case herein, the United States Patents we are including in this dispatch include, in order: 4,399,234; 4,413,064; 4,492,774; 4,493,905; 4,497,903; 4,585,798; 4,605,676; 4,605,679; 4,605,680; and, 4,613,624.

 

If necessary, they can be easily accessed via entry of those patent numbers in the official United States Government Patent and Trademark Office web site search engine; which is easily accessible via entry of "USPTO" in any inter net search engine.

 

Please keep in mind that, as indicated in our opening comments, the ten US-patented Coal conversion technologies we document in this dispatch are only a sample, selected from a certain segment of time surrounding the acquisition of Gulf Oil by Chevron.

 

Chevron now owns, as we have documented in this and previous reports, and as we will further document in reports to follow, an extraordinary and complete body of knowledge and technology that would enable us, in the United States, to end our economically crippling dependence on foreign oil, by, as Chevron herein specifies, with official US Government affirmation of the fact, synthesizing our own "liquid hydrocarbons", including "high cetane diesel fuel and high octane gasoline", by now-known and established processes utilizing "synthesis gas", a blend of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen "obtained ... by the oxidation of coal".

 

The technologies represent, as Chevron clearly states: "attractive direct and environmentally acceptable paths to high quality transportation fuels" through the utilization of "coal-derived synthesis gas".


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