United States Patent Application: 0090305091

Our headline on this submission is a somewhat misleading, or slightly inaccurate, characterization.

It isn't so much that Carbon Dioxide, generated by the combustion of Carbon, is being recycled herein; but, it's formation in the first place is being, as we understand it, forestalled; and, the products of combustion are being directed into the formation of other, useful, Carbon-based compounds.

As often happens in the course of our research, our challenged selves encounter information of a nature so technical that even our fully-functioning consultants find it difficult to reduce and to condense the matter, and to help us shape it into a narrative exposition that would be readily-understandable by anyone but a university-certified cranium.

That is sadly true of the information concerning the potentials for recycling, or, more accurately, preventing the formation of, Carbon Dioxide we submit herein, which wafts down to us from the ivy-covered ivory towers of Philadelphia's Drexel University.

We don't intend that characterization to be insulting or demeaning.

We thank the heavens that we do have some competent, and honest, people willing and able to focus educated thought and illuminative attention onto the fact that Carbon Dioxide can be productively and profitably recycled; or, as herein, the processes leading to it's formation restructured so that other, useful, products are generated in it's stead.

And, such CO2 manipulation can be ordered and structured in such a way that it actually improves the overall efficiency of a power-generating Carbon combustion process.

Before presenting our more complete excerpts from the enclosed link to this Drexel University United States Patent Application, we feel some advance excerpts might be in order, to help focus and clarify the intent of this technology, since the full exposition is, to us at least, technically dense in the extreme.

First, deep within the Disclosure, Drexel explains:

"The reaction of steam with red-hot coke also produces carbon monoxide along with hydrogen gas (H2). Coke is the impure carbon residue resulting from the burning of coal. This mixture of CO and H2 is called water gas or syngas and is used as an industrial fuel or feedstock for organic synthesis."

"Syngas", as you should by now know, can be catalytically condensed, as by, for one example of "organic synthesis", the venerable Fischer-Tropsch process, into liquid hydrocarbon fuels.

And, Drexel points out something else we have already documented from other sources to be true.

"Green" corn, or other agricultural, Ethanol ain't green.

As emphasized and confirmed in such revelations that:

"The fermentation of glucose during the preparation of ethanol produces large quantities of CO2 as a by-product";

And:

"Use of biomass as fuel is a commonly accepted way to reduce net carbon emissions, however, recent sources indicate that agricultural land use may release carbon stored in soil, effectively counteracting advantages of biomass-derived fuel."

But, again, what Drexel is actually explaining herein is not so much a way to recycle Carbon Dioxide after it is produced by combustion, but, a method to prevent it's formation during combustion by a proper structuring and control of the combustion process, leading to the secondary formation of much more useful Carbon compounds.

Perhaps as importantly as the fact that useful Carbon compounds can be formed, is the revelation that ordering a combustion process around Drexel's technology can actually result in more useful energy being obtained from that combustion process, which some other advance excerpts serve to illustrate, as in:

"Therefore, a relative large amount of energy can be obtained ... by producing condensed carbon suboxide (C3O2) instead of a gaseous product, such as CO2. The main benefit of forming a condensed carbon product would be a significant reduction in CO2 production, without sacrificing combustion efficiency."

And:

"Carbon suboxide is a relatively low chemical energy product. When a hydrocarbon such as methane is oxidized to produce carbon suboxide as a polymerized or condensed reaction product, it is possible to utilize about 90% of the total available chemical energy of methane. ... Alternatively, about 70% of the total available chemical energy of coal ... may be utilized.".

Yes: "90%" and "70%" energy utilization is darned good.

And, Drexel summarizes, that:

"Due to the potential environmental impact of carbon dioxide emissions, there remains a need to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions while increasing the use of energy released from hydrocarbon fuels. Production of different carbon products in the form of a solid would reduce carbon oxide production thus reducing atmospheric pollution ... . (Thus, in) a first aspect of the invention, carbon dioxide is converted to carbon suboxide polymers (and, in) another aspect of the invention, hydrogen is released from a hydrocarbon source while at the same time, reducing the production of gaseous carbon oxides by the preferential production of polymerized carbon suboxides."

Note, that, as in the above passages, most of which will be repeated in our fuller excerpts, following, not only is Carbon Dioxide formation being prevented, but, "hydrogen is released".

We have some suggestions as to what can be done with that Hydrogen, following more extended excerpts from the enclosed link to:

"United States Patent Application 20090305091 - Production and Uses of Carbon Suboxides

Date: December, 2009


Inventors: Alexander Fridman, et. al., NJ

Assignee: Drexel University, Philadelphia

Abstract: Methods for the reduction of gaseous carbon dioxide emissions from combustion or oxidation reactions are provided. The various methods involve the formation of carbon suboxides and/or polymerized carbon suboxides (PCS), preferentially over gaseous carbon oxides to thereby reduce gaseous carbon dioxide emissions. The various methods can be employed for efficient generation of energy and/or hydrogen. In addition, various methods for the use of polymerized carbon suboxide are disclosed.

Claims:  A method for the production of carbon suboxide or polymeric carbon suboxide, comprising:reacting an organic substance or carbon with water, oxygen, or carbon dioxide at an elevated temperature or pressure, or both, to produce carbon suboxide.

(And) wherein the organic substance is natural gas, methane, pulverized coal powder, a coal slurry, peat, or biomass, or any combination thereof.

(And, the) method ... further comprising producing hydrogen (and) wherein the hydrogen is selectively removed ... through the use of a fuel cell which consumes hydrogen, or a hydrogen-transparent membrane.

A method for producing fibers, comprising: reacting at least one material selected from carbon or a hydrocarbon with a compound selected from the group consisting of oxygen and water ... to produce polymeric carbon suboxide; and heating the polymeric carbon suboxide in the absence of oxygen to drive out at least some oxygen from the polymeric carbon suboxide to produce carbon rich fibers (and, which) method ... further produces hydrogen. 

A method for the production of carbon suboxide or polymers of carbon suboxide comprising the steps of:reacting carbon or hydrocarbon with oxygen or water ... to produce at least carbon suboxide and hydrogen.

The method of carbon dioxide sequestration by bonding of carbon in polymeric carbon suboxides (and, the) method of carbon dioxide storage by bonding of carbon in polymeric carbon suboxides made according to the process ... . 

(And, a) method of electricity production from an organic substance or carbon, comprising the steps of:converting the organic substance or carbon into a condensed product by reacting the organic substance or carbon with water, oxygen, or carbon dioxide at an elevated temperature or pressure, or both, to produce carbon suboxide; and oxidizing hydrogen in a fuel cell.

In another aspect of the invention ... novel methods for feeding carbon to a reactor to increase PCS production are employed. One method for feeding carbon to a reactor includes natural gas (CH4) or pulverized coal powder. Alternatively, coal slurry that continuously moves in a thin bed may be utilized. A gliding arc discharge moves around the surface of the coal (and, thus) carbon suboxide is produced for use in the production of electricity and hydrogen gas. ... Another way to increase PCS formation is to carry out supercritical oxidation of hydrocarbons in H2O and/or CO2.

(Note: We can, in other words, generate both power and useful Carbon Suboxides by combusting "hydrocarbons", as in a "coal slurry", in an atmosphere of "H2O and/or CO2".)

Carbon suboxide or polymers of carbon suboxide made according to the method ... . 

Fibers made according to the process ... . 

Humic acid made according to the process (and, the) method of using polymeric carbon suboxides  ... as an organic fertilizer or soil conditioner.

Summary: In a first aspect of the invention, carbon dioxide is converted to carbon suboxide polymers. 

In another aspect of the invention, hydrogen is released from a hydrocarbon source while at the same time, reducing the production of gaseous carbon oxides by the preferential production of polymerized carbon suboxides. 

In another aspect of the invention, solid polymerized carbon suboxide is a major product of a hydrocarbon combustion and/or oxidation process. 

Other aspects of the present invention relate to uses of carbon suboxides as a fertilizer, a construction material, for the production of carbon fibers, and as surface coatings."

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In other words, we can forestall the generation of Carbon Dioxide and, instead, make things like "organic fertilizer" and "construction material", in a highly-productive and efficient energy-generation process based on the combustion of "coal slurry", in an atmosphere of "H2O and/or CO2".

Those inherent implications for the use of Carbon Dioxide, reclaimed from elsewhere, in this "coal slurry" combustion process, aside, note, again, that this technology "further produces hydrogen", along with the thermal energy and the useful Carbon Suboxides.

You don't suppose, do you, that we might be able to employ such extra Hydrogen in, for instance, a Sabatier reactor, wherein we can make Methane by combining that Hydrogen with reclaimed Carbon Dioxide?

Or, could we use that extra Hydrogen in the liquefaction of Coal; perhaps by hydrogenating the primary Coal oil, Naphthalene, in order to synthesize the Coal liquefaction solvent, "Tetralin", which we believe to be, as we have previously documented for you, the Coal solvent specified by West Virginia University in their "West Virginia Process" for the direct liquefaction of Coal?


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