United States Patent: 4396432


We've documented many times, as in our report of:


West Virginia Coal Association | USDOE Says Coal Ash Could End Aluminum Ore Imports | Research & Development; concerning, in part: "Resource Recovery from Coal Residues; 73rd Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers; 1980; G. Jones, et. al.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; USDOE; Abstract: Several processes are being developed to recover metals from coal combustion and conversion residues. Methods to obtain substantial amounts of aluminum, iron, and titanium from these wastes are presented. The primary purpose of our investigation is to find a process that is economically sound or one that at least will partially defray the costs of waste processing. A cursory look at the content of fly ash enables one to see the merits of recovery of these huge quantities of valuable resources. The major constituents of fly ash of most interest are aluminum (14.8%), iron (7.5%), and titanium (1.0%). If these major elements could be recovered from the fly ash produced in the United States (60 million tons/year), bauxite would not have to be imported, iron ore production could be increased, and titanium production could be doubled";

United States Patent Application: 0130168966


We've provided you now with a number of reports, as for one example seen in:


West Virginia Coal Association | Saudi Arabia and Texas CO2 to Hydrocarbon Syngas | Research & Development; concerning: "United States Patent 8,288,446 - Catalytic Hydrogenation of CO2 into Syngas Mixture; 2012; Inventors: Agaddin Mamedov, Texas, and Abdulaziz Al-Jodai, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Assignee: Saudi Basic Industries Corporation, Riyadh; Abstract: The invention relates to a process of making a syngas mixture containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, comprising a step of contacting a gaseous feed mixture containing carbon dioxide and hydrogen with a catalyst, wherein the catalyst substantially consists of chromia/alumina. This process enables hydrogenation of carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide with high selectivity, and good catalyst stability over time and under variations in processing conditions. The process can be applied separately, but can also be combined with other processes, for example up-stream with other synthesis processes for making products like aliphatic oxygenates, olefins or aromatics";

Shenhua Coal to Liquids Plant - Hydrocarbons Technology


We've provided you with quite a few reports concerning China's plans for, and achievements in, establishing an extensive national industry focused on, and dedicated to, the conversion of her abundant reserves of Coal into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, and into various chemical manufacturing raw materials.

United States Patent: 7951283


We, actually, weren't going to make report of the technology disclosed herein. It is another version of the process, developed by our United States Department of Energy, known as "Syntrolysis", whereby Carbon Dioxide and Water can be co-electrolyzed, with the products of the electrolysis being Oxygen, and, a blend of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen comprising a synthesis gas, or "syngas", suitable for catalytic chemical condensation into various hydrocarbons.

United States Patent: 5061363


Recently, as accessible via:


West Virginia Coal Association | WVU June 18, 2013, Carbon-Recycling Coal Liquefaction | Research & Development; concerning: "United States Patent 8,465,561 - Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil in Coal Liquefaction; 2013; Inventors: Alfred H. Stiller and Elliot B. Kennel, Morgantown, WV; Assignee: West Virginia University; Abstract: The present disclosure provides methods and systems for coal liquefaction using a hydrogenated vegetable oil"; and:

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