Chemical cnversion of carbon dioxide by catalytic hydrogenation and room temperature photoelectrocatalysis
Pursuant to one of our earlier submissions, now published as "NASA Recycles CO2 to Methane at Room Temperature" in the West Virginia Coal Association's R&D Blog, we wanted to follow up with report of additional research confirming some of NASA's information.
Enclosed via the link, we submit:
"Title: Chemical conversion of carbon dioxide by catalytic hydrogenation and room temperature photoelectrocatalysis
Author: S. Ichikawa
Affiliation: Hitachi Ltd, Hitachi res. lab., JAPAN
Source: International Conference on Carbon Dioxide Removal; October, 1994; Kyoto , JAPAN
Abstract: Conversion of effluent carbon dioxide to fuels is one of the possible methods to decrease its emission into the atmosphere. The concept of chemical recycling is expected to become a universal practice in the long run not only for its relevancy to CO2 but also as a means to solve energy problems by revitalizing flue gases in general through catalytic processes. This report gives new results on the developments of a rhodium-manganese catalyst for high-conversion of CO2 to methane by contact catalytic process and a photoelectrocatalytic process to convert CO2 to useful chemicals."
Again, we find herein that we can recycle CO2 into Methane in a "room temperature", i.e., low energy input, low energy cost, process.
And, yet again, once we have the Methane, we can convert it directly into liquid fuels; or, we can use it, via Tri-reforming processes, as explained by Penn State University, to recycle more Carbon Dioxide into liquid fuels; or, we can use it to enhance and improve the productivity of indirect Coal liquefaction processes to make liquid fuels.
All as we have documented and will continue to document.

U.S. Bureau of Mines Fischer-Tropsch Pilot-Plant Studies of Oil-Circulation Processes

In 1951, a good year, US Bureau of Mines employees reported important advances in the technology for converting Coal into liquid fuels.
Instead of speaking out about it, as they should have, from the steps of a Capital building, in Washington, DC, or Charleston, WV, however, they traveled all the way to an obscure conference in a, as far as the Heartland of US Coal Country would be concerned, very obscure place to deliver the news that US tax dollars had helped to improve the process of making liquid fuels from Coal.
The excerpts:
"Title: U.S. Bureau of Mines Fischer-Tropsch Pilot-Plant Studies of Oil-Circulation Processes
Authors: H.E. Benson, J.H. Crowell, et. al.
Source: 3rd World Petroleum Congress, May 28 - June 6, 1951 , The Hague, the Netherlands
Abstract: Fischer-'I'ropsch process development is summarized, and the essential features of the German fixed-bed system, the hot-gas recycle and oil-circulation processes, and the oil-slurry and fluidized-bed system are briefly described. Most Bureau of Mines pilot-plant experimentation has been directed toward development of the oil-circulation process because a simple converter design could be used and precise operating control attained in such a system. Several moderately successful experiments were made that employed a cooling oil circulating through a fixed catalyst bed. However, shut-downs were necessitated after three or four months of synthesis because the catalyst particles became cemented together and an excessive pressure drop developed across the catalyst bed. This problem of catalyst cementing was circumvented by employing a moving bed of catalyst in which lifting action of the circulating oil was used to expand the catalyst bed and keep the particles in motion. Details of induction and synthesis operations, operating data, analyses of gas and liquid streams, tables of calculated yields, and a typical product distribution are given for various experiments. Calculated yields of gasoline and Diesel products resulting from thermal and catalytic cracking of heavy distillate and wax are given, as well as characterization of the gasoline and Diesel oil. Bureau of Mines, Bruceton, Pennsylvania; Research and Development Branch, Office of Synthetic Liquid Fuels."
Our ever-diplomatic and discrete US Guv employees did manage to avoid offensive use of the four-letter word "Coal", in this presentation to a "Petroleum Congress", although the phrase "Fischer-Tropsch" should have been a dead giveaway. And, we doubt that our domestic press was much interested in, what was then, an obscure oil industry conference held in the still-rebuilding, war-torn home of the Dutch.
Make no mistake, though, they were, in 1951, liquefying Coal using advances on the "essential features of the German fixed-bed system".
We're sending along this very brief, very to-the-point research report from what was once one of the cradles of European art and learning, Poland, just to illustrate that, even in that nation - still struggling to free itself from the effects of long suppression in a march back toward modern civilization, a march started by their rebellious union of coal miners, "Solidnarosc", (i.e, "Solidarity" - Joe still has one of their decorative stickers, in the original Polish, on his old coal miner's hard hat) they recognize that Carbon Dioxide is a potentially valuable resource.
As follows:
"Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to methanol
M. Lachowska, J.Skrzypek; Institute of Chemical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences

Methanol is a very important chemical with a wide range of applications. For Cu-containing methanol synthesis catalysts it has been well established that methanol is formed mainly from CO2.
Our investigations confirmed literature information concerning advantageous influence of zirconium on the catalyst activity. Addition of Mn to Cu/Zn/Zr catalyst increases the rate of methanol production. Mn promoted copper/zinc/zirconia catalyst exhibits remarkable high stability and high selectivity. The crude methanol does not contain practically any by-products other than water."
To repeat: "methanol is formed mainly from CO2".
Simply put: They know, in Poland, how to make, in nearly pure form, the gasoline synthesis and plastics manufacturing raw material, Methanol, out of Carbon Dioxide.
To follow up on our earlier report of Swiss and Chinese joint development of Dielectric Barrier Discharge plasma conversion of Methane, and Coal-derived synthesis gas, into higher hydrocarbons, we wanted to illustrate that there are other ways to approach the synergistic co-conversion of Coal and Methane.
Herein, we present, with comment appended, excerpts from:
Jinhu Wu, Yitain Fang, Yang Wang
Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences: People Republic of China
We've been trying to put the enclosed report, available through the above link or attached document, into some sort of positive perspective for ourselves.
But, it's difficult.
Herein, it's documented that our USDOE has put considerable effort into the reforming of Methane with Carbon Dioxide to synthesize the valuable liquid fuel, and gasoline and plastics raw material, Methanol.
They did not, however, use Carbon Dioxide generated by a Coal use facility; nor, did they employ Methane synthesized either from Coal, via a gasification process; or, from Carbon Dioxide, via Sabatier recycling.
They used, in this development, the relatively minor combined emissions of CO2 and Methane arising from landfills.

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