United States Patent: 4605487

As seen in, for just two, out of now many similar, examples:

NASA Recycles CO2 to Methane at Room Temp | Research & Development | News; and,

Exxon 1981 Coal to "High-Quality Liquids" and Methane | Research & Development | News;

we can efficiently synthesize Methane from either Carbon Dioxide or Coal. And, as in the full Disclosure of the 1981 Exxon technology, such Methane can even be generated as the by-product of a process intended primarily to convert Coal into what Exxon describes as "high-quality" liquid hydrocarbon fuels.


Source: Virginia Tech (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)

Newswise — A consortium of major research universities has formed a new initiative to address the environmental impacts of the discovery, development, production, and use of energy resources in Appalachia. The Appalachian Research Initiative for Environmental Science (ARIES), under the direction of the Virginia Center for Coal and Energy Research at Virginia Tech, will study both upstream and downstream issues related to the energy sector.

"The energy resources of Appalachia have long been critical to the economies of Virginia, Kentucky, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, as well as all the other states that depend on those resources to provide energy for their citizens," said Coal Center Director Michael Karmis. "ARIES provides the means by which we can explore new frontiers so that continued development of our energy resources occurs in a safe and environmentally protective way, backed by sound science and research."

ARIES will initially focus its studies on the coal industry, conducting scientific inquiry and research, publishing findings, and disseminating research results to all stakeholders. The initiative will engage established researchers, representing an array of disciplines and expertise, from Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, University of Kentucky, Ohio State University, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania State University, and the University of Pennsylvania.

"These universities have a track record of world-class research which has been sponsored by federal and state agencies and environmental and community organizations, as well as industrial partners," said Robert Walters, vice president for research at Virginia Tech.

Virginia Tech President Charles Steger said, "The innovative researchers involved in ARIES bring together vast knowledge and experience from multiple disciplines. Multi-institution collaboration will provide the perspective needed to address such critical environmental and energy issues as protecting human health and quality of life and improving mining practices."

The technical scope of the research ARIES will conduct includes: 
• evaluating the effects of coal mining on streams and biological communities in the region;
• investigating methods for effectively minimizing water discharges through alternative water management practices and treating water prior to discharge; 
• developing analytical tools to allow mine planners to locate, isolate, and manage strata that may generate releases of environmental concern; and 
• assessing improved placement designs and spearheading development of mining engineering systems and practices that can improve environmental performance and accountability.

"In concert with these enabling technical studies, regional investigations will better define socio-economic factors and overall health and quality of life issues in coal mining regions and address short- and long-term development of community well-being," said Karmis.

"We believe that good scientific research on natural resources, safety, and environmental issues is a key way to sustain the viability of the industry. Only by knowing what the facts are about the impacts of mining can elected officials then make sound policy decisions that support jobs and energy security while maintaining the health and well-being of the environment and communities of Appalachia. ARIES will provide the needed research to make that happen," said Kevin Crutchfield, CEO of Alpha Natural Resources.

ARIES was founded in cooperation with a number of industrial affiliates. These industry partners are committed to the goals of ARIES, the need to employ the best science to ensure the long-term health of the environment and communities throughout Appalachia, and the dissemination of the research results for the benefits of all stakeholders. Ben Hatfield, CEO and director of International Coal Group, said, "Every day we expect our employees to operate our mines based on proven engineering and scientific principles. We know that leads to the best performance in safety, environmental compliance, and productivity. However, the ongoing public debate about coal mining in Appalachia has raised many legitimate questions that can only be answered through independent investigation. The universities working together under ARIES will apply scientific rigor to the study of those important issues."

At its launch, ARIES' industrial partners include: Alpha Natural Resources, International Coal Group, Massey Energy, Natural Resource Partners, TECO Coal Corporation, Patriot Coal Corporation, Cliffs Natural Resources, Mepco, and Norfolk Southern. These partners have committed to fund ARIES with a $12.5 million grant over the next five years. "Other companies are expected to join in the future, but work at the universities under ARIES will commence immediately," said Karmis.

United States Patent Application: 0070244208

We remind you that we have already reported the development, by the small nation of Iceland, with some help from more or less private parties in the United States, of technologies that are in the process of being reduced to commercial practice, wherein Iceland's abundant natural Carbon Dioxide, which arises from volcanic sources, can, and will, be harvested, and then be converted into liquid hydrocarbon fuels.

A recent example would be: Iceland Seeks CO2 Recycling World Patent | Research & Development | News; wherein we learn that a team of Icelandic and US scientists have applied for an international patent, via "World Patent Application Number: PCT/IS2007/000007", on a technology entitled: "Process For Producing Liquid Fuel From Carbon Dioxide And Water".


United States Patent: 4597776

We have, in a few earlier reports, documented the somewhat unlikely development of various Coal conversion processes by the California-based high-technology company, Rockwell, whom we had always thought of as being primarily a Department of Defense aerospace contractor.

Those reports included: USA's Rockwell Liquefies Coal | Research & Development | News; and:

Rockwell International & Hydropyrolysis of Coal - 1978 | Research & Development | News.

Herein, we see that at least some of Rockwell's Coal conversion research, like much of what else they do, was, in fact, paid for by the US Government; i.e., by us.


Energy Citations Database (ECD) - - Document #5638881

We have previously reported on the efforts that have been underway in Arkansas, which utilize certain strains of bacteria, or other microorganisms, as bio-catalytic agents in the conversion of Coal into hydrocarbons.

As can be seen in: Arkansas, USBM Convert Coal to Methane | Research & Development | News; and, in:

Arkansas: Biological Coal Conversion | Research & Development | News; not only has the University of Arkansas been investigating such potentials, they have been supported in at least some of their research by the US Bureau of Mines offices and labs in Pittsburgh, PA.

Herein, via the initial link, we submit further documentation of both their bacteria-assisted Coal conversion efforts, and of the United States Department of Energy's support, and knowledge of, those efforts.


West Virginia Coal Association - PO Box 3923 - Charleston, WV 25339 | 304-342-4153 | website developed by brickswithoutstraw