Emissions from Shale Gas Exceed Those from Coal, Study Says | Reuters

By Yale Environment 360 at Yale Environment 360

Wed Apr 13, 2011 2:08am EDT

Natural gas extracted from shale deposits by a process known as hydraulic fracturing generates more greenhouse gas emissions over a 20-year period than conventional gas, oil, and coal, according to a Cornell University study. Researchers said that during the lifespan of the average shale-gas drilling operation - in which a mix of water, chemicals, and sand is pumped into the ground to release natural gas trapped in shale formations - about 4 to 8 percent of the total gas production leaks into the atmosphere in the form of methane, a greenhouse gas more potent than carbon dioxide. While methane does not linger in the atmosphere as long as carbon dioxide, over the course of two decades the total carbon footprint of drilling for and burning shale gas is at least 20 percent greater than the footprint for coal production and combustion, and perhaps twice as great, said Robert Howarth, the lead author of the study, published in the journal Climatic Change Letters

Carbon dioxide as an anti-knock agent

The Carbon Dioxide-use technology we disclose herein might, at first, seem like one of those old folk-art, hand-crafted "BS grinders" that, in years gone by, used to be somewhat amusing souvenirs commonly sold in southern state tourist gift shops, along the major north-south highways.

If you've seen and recall them, the wooden handles go around and around, but nothing much else happens.


Energy Citations Database (ECD) - - Document #932888

Herein, we see that our USDOE hired the University of Georgia to demonstrate that Carbon Dioxide, reclaimed from whatever source, can, both directly and, as we will explain, indirectly, be recycled into basic chemical manufacturing industry raw materials.

The specific product of the CO2-recycling technology developed in Georgia, "succinic acid", might not even sound familiar to our readers, but, as a foreword, here's a reference that might help to explain it:


Energy Citations Database (ECD) - - Document #10180814

Very nearly two decades ago, our United States Department of Energy hired yet another little-known, almost semi-secret "skunk works" to asses the economics of producing liquid fuels from Coal.

First, a little about the little-known skunk works that were entrusted with the task of, quietly, documenting the fact that perfectly-suitable liquid hydrocarbon fuels can be efficiently made from Coal; as taught by the nearly-omniscient Wikipedia:


Energy Citations Database (ECD) - - Document #10140201

We have cited the primary author of this report, and the University of Colorado, previously.

Herein, we see that, under contract to the United States Department of Energy, they continued their work on the conversion of Coal into more versatile hydrocarbons; further refining a process we have many times previously, from other sources, documented: wherein Water, H2O, in the form of Steam, can be used as an agent of Coal gasification; and, made thereby to provide the Hydrogen needed to convert the primarily Carbon content, of the Coal, into a hydrocarbon synthesis gas of a variable, and controllable, composition; and, thus well-suited for subsequent catalytic condensation into a variety of hydrocarbon products.

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