|Penn State Recycles via Artificial Photosynthesis|
|Monday - January 31, 2011|
First, beware of an error on the initial cover page of the enclosed file, accessible via the above link and as attached, wherein the title is incorrectly presented as "Conversion of CO and Water Vapor".
It is, as is quickly revealed, a process for the recycling of Carbon Dioxide.
We are, as well, following excerpts from that file, including an additional link to another reference site, with a few excerpts, wherein the same document, but only as an abstract, is recorded.
The title there, however, is correctly stated to be "Conversion of CO2".
Note, as well, the list of authors.
One is Penn State scientist Craig Grimes, who we once quoted as having said, with regards to mandated Geologic Sequestration of CO2, in light of what he knew to be the true potentials for productively recycling the gas, that:
"Burying CO2 is ridiculous."
Furthermore, we have many times documented, and made reference to, the "tri-reforming" CO2 recycling technology which has been under development, as well, at Penn State; with advances being made there on the technology for reacting Carbon Dioxide, Steam and Methane, in order to form hydrocarbon synthesis gas, that was first established, as we've documented, by corporate components of the US petroleum industry in the years immediately before and after the end of WWII.
The enclosed document, however, actually concerns a variation on CO2-Methane "bi-reforming" reactions, about which we have also reported.
But, herein, in confirmation of other work we've reported coming from the USDOE's Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories, especially as relates to the "Green Freedom"(r) technology being developed there, Methane isn't required for Carbon Dioxide bi-reforming reactions, and can be replaced in those reactions, when those reactions are properly catalyzed, by Water alone .
In that respect, it is similar to the CO2-H2O reaction and recycling technology being developed by contractors, such as United Technologies, for our US Department of Defense; and, being refined by NASA for use in making rocket fuel on the planet Mars.
All of that as we have thoroughly documented for you.
Further, Penn State also herein confirms another aspect of the USDOE work at the Sandia and Los Alamos Laboratories, in that:
The necessary reactions can be driven by nothing but sunlight.
Comment and, as noted, an additional link follow excerpts from the initial link and attached file of:
"High-Rate Solar Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2 and Water Vapor to Hydrocarbon Fuels
By: Oomman K. Varghese, Maggie Paulose, Thomas J. LaTempa, and Craig A. Grimes
Abstract: Efficient solar conversion of carbon dioxide and water vapor to methane and other hydrocarbons is achieved using nitrogen-doped titania nanotube arrays, with a wall thickness low enough to facilitate effective carrier transfer to the adsorbing species, surface-loaded with nanodimensional islands of cocatalysts platinum and/or copper. All experiments are conducted in outdoor sunlight at University Park, PA.
Intermediate reaction products, hydrogen and carbon monoxide, are also detected with their relative concentrations (to) hydrocarbon(s) dependent upon the nature of the cocatalysts on the nanotube array surface.
Using outdoor ... sunlight ... a hydrocarbon production rate ... at least 20 times higher than previous published reports, which were conducted under laboratory conditions using UV illumination (was achieved).
A possible avenue for sustainable development is to use photocatalysts for the conversion of CO2 into hydrocarbons with the help of solar energy. A process involving only water and carbon dioxide is very promising as it can form a useful carbon cycle: CO2 + 2H2O = CH4 + 2O2.
In 1979 (it was) demonstrated (as referenced, that) photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to organic compounds, i.e., formic acid, formaldehyde, methanol, and methane (could be accomplished).
(We) have demonstrated that high rate photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide can be achieved using sunlight ... ."
Our limitations make it impossible for us to do justice, in our excerpts and our explanations, to the scope and depth of PSU's Carbon Dioxide recycling development; and, to the obvious understanding they have there of the science involved.
However, an additional link, with abbreviated excerpts, might help to affirm the technology's reality for you, as disclosed by the American Chemical Society in:
"Toward Solar Fuels: Photocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Hydrocarbons
Somnath C. Roy, Oomman K. Varghese, Maggie Paulose and Craig A. Grimes
Department of Electrical Engineering, and Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Abstract: The past several decades have seen a significant rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels resulting from the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. A solar energy based technology to recycle carbon dioxide into readily transportable hydrocarbon fuel (i.e., a solar fuel) would help reduce atmospheric CO2 levels and partly fulfill energy demands within the present hydrocarbon based fuel infrastructure. We review the present status of carbon dioxide conversion techniques, with particular attention to a recently developed photocatalytic process to convert carbon dioxide and water vapor into hydrocarbon fuels using sunlight."
Thus, herein, we again have confirmation of several facts, with some inescapable implications:
Carbon Dioxide, as arises, relative to natural sources of emission such as volcanoes, in a very small way from our varied and productive uses of Coal, is a valuable raw material resource.
We can use environmental energy to collect it, even from the atmosphere itself, and then to convert it, in combination with Water, into gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon fuels.
The concept of "Cap & Trade" is nothing more than an unnecessary and unfair taxation of our vital Coal-use industries, and their customers.
Cap & Trade is a levy intended to make the enforced Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide - which is nothing more than a subsidy of the petroleum industry and their secondary petroleum scrounging from nearly-depleted natural reservoirs, which, too, would be levied on the backs of our Coal-use industries and their customers - seem the more attractive option.